讓農民加入合作組織、提升賦權是解決三農問題的途徑之一，在農民自發與政府推動下，從2000年以來，中國農村新一波農民合作組織興起，作為整體現象，此發展改變吾人對中國農民「一盤散沙」的刻板印象，惟若進一步觀察，發現農民參與比例大約僅10%，若農民合作組織是對農民有利且又為政府所鼓勵，為何農民參與的比例不高？農民是否參與及農民組織所處的環境結構有關。在農村中，農民（主要參與者）、專業合作社的創辦者（地方菁英）與地方幹部（官方）三個主要團體之間如何互動是影響專業合作社發展的主要因素，三者各自有其侷限與利益，這些因素決定他們彼此之間的互動模式，這些互動塑造社會結構內涵，是影響專業合作社發展的主要原因。 The emergence of various peasants’ professional cooperatives in rural China since the year 2000 is a new and significant phenomenon. The Chinese central government has come to recognize and support this phenomenon of peasants protecting their interests through joining voluntary organizations, in 2007 passing a regulation encouraging the formation of peasants’ cooperatives. How do societies regain the power of organization and ability to promote their interests in an authoritarian state like China? Moreover, if it is beneficial for peasants to participate in the professional cooperatives, why have only 10 percent of peasants nationwide sought membership of them? It is argued in this paper that the will and ability of peasants to participate in the activities of cooperatives are conditioned by the social environment they encounter. The three major actors involved in the development of peasants’ professional cooperatives are peasants, the founders of cooperatives, and local cadres. How these actors interact and the resulting conflict of interests help to explain why peasants haven’t participated in the cooperatives as expected.