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    題名: 語境限制與第二語言能力對雙語詞彙觸接的影響:日中雙語者的眼動研究證據
    The influence of contextual constraint and L2 proficiency on bilingual lexical access: evidence from eye movements of Japanese-Chinese bilinguals
    作者: 翁翊倫
    Weng, Yi Lun
    貢獻者: 蔡介立
    Tsai, Jie Li
    翁翊倫
    Weng, Yi Lun
    關鍵詞: 雙語詞彙觸接
    語境
    二語能力
    跨語言同形同義詞
    跨語言同形異義詞
    日中雙語者
    bilingual lexical access
    context
    L2 proficiency
    cognates
    interlingual homographs
    Japanese-Chinese bilingual
    日期: 2016
    上傳時間: 2016-02-03 11:15:25 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 過去學者們對於雙語詞彙觸接歷程持有兩種相異的觀點:選擇性觸接假設(selective access hypothesis)認為雙語者在進行詞彙觸接時,只有符合語境的目標語言才會被激發;非選擇性觸接假設(non-selective access hypothesis)則認為雙語者的兩種語言表徵會同時被激發而產生競爭或促進效果。至今已有眾多研究結果支持雙語詞彙觸接歷程為非選擇性,然而,這些研究大多採用促發典範(priming paradigm)忽略語境在雙語詞彙觸接歷程所扮演的角色,且多數實驗中的受試者二語能力皆相當流利,對於二語能力個別差異對詞彙觸接歷程的影響也尚未清楚。此外,以非拼音文字系統為研究對象的相關雙語研究也不多。因此,本研究旨在從非拼音文字的角度探討語境限制及中文能力在雙語詞彙觸接中所扮演的角色,實驗操弄語境限制程度(高限制、低限制)及詞彙類型(同形同義詞、同形異義詞、中文單義詞),以日中雙語者為研究對象,控制句子語境呈現中立或偏向目標詞中文語意,使用眼動實驗來即時記錄受試者在進行詞彙觸接的過程,檢視中文能力對跨語言同形詞效果在高、低限制語境下的影響性。此外,本研究也分別以高低分組與眼動表現兩種方法當作中文能力指標進行分析,並將結果進行比較,以瞭解何種中文能力指標能夠較準確反映出受試者在閱讀中文篇章的能力。
    實驗結果顯示,雙語詞彙觸接歷程為非選擇性,中文能力和語境限制能夠對詞彙觸接歷程造成影響,使得跨語言同形詞效果產生消長。首先,在高低分組結果方面,中文能力指標和各效果主要在晚期詞彙處理階段產生交互作用,高程度組在高限制語境下觀察到形同異義效果,低限制語境則沒有看到任何效果;低程度組在高、低限制語境下皆觀察到顯著的形同義同效果。另一方面,以眼動表現作為中文能力指標的分析結果中,則清楚中文能力在早期詞彙觸接階段就已經和語境限制、跨語言同形詞效果產生影響性,顯示眼動表現能夠視為測量中文能力的指標之一。總而言之,不同的分析結果皆反映雙語詞彙觸接歷程為非選擇性,語境與中文能力在語意提取歷程中扮演重要角色,中文能力較好的雙語者在早期詞彙觸接階段就會受到語境限制影響,而中文能力較低者則是在晚期階段受到語境影響。
    For decades, psycholinguists have disputes on the organization of the two language systems of bilinguals’ brain and how they retrieve lexical representations. The selective access hypothesis predicts that two languages are independent in the brain and bilinguals activate only one lexicon at a time while reading or speaking. Alternatively, non-selective access hypothesis predicts that two languages share an integrated conception representation, so representations from both languages are accessed simultaneously during comprehension. So far, many bilingual studies have demonstrated that bilingual lexical access is non-selective. However, these studies usually used priming paradigm such as lexical decision task which words are presented in isolation, ignoring the role of context in the bilingual lexical access processing. According to the monolingual literature, it is clear that lexical ambiguity resolution is influenced by the surrounding sentence context. While most of the previous studies investigated highly proficient bilinguals, the same question about non-selective access could also be asked of less proficient bilinguals. Moreover, most of results are based on alphabetic writing systems such as English-French or Dutch; only few of them examined the non-alphabetic systems. Besides, since bilingual experience is dynamic and poses a challenge for researchers to develop instruments that capture its relevant dimensions. The present study also examined the result of language proficiency from class level and eye movement indexs to confirm which one is more accurate.The present study aimed to examine whether Japanese-Chinese bilingual lexical access is non-selective and whether the context and L2 proficiency modulate the word recognition processing. Experiment manipulated contextual constraint (high or low constraint) and target word types (cognates, interlingual homographs, or Chinese words), using eye movement recordings to investigate the effects of contextual constraint for bilingual lexical access when reading Chinese sentences by Japanese-Chinese bilinguals, L1 and L2 proficiency were measured.
    The results support the non-selective hypothesis. Both sentence context and L2 proficiency could affect the bilingual lexical access. According to class level analysis, L2 proficiency has significant interaction with other effects in the late processing stage. The eye movement measures that reflects early processing of target words showed significant interlingual homograph interference and cognate facilitation in the higher proficient bilinguals. However, only cognate facilitation was observed for high-constraint sentences in the lower proficient bilinguals and no effect was founded in the low-constraint sentences. On the other hand, the eye movement index analysis showed L2 proficiency has significant interaction with other effects in the early processing stage, demonstrating the L2 reading proficiency can be measured by eye movement index. In summary, both sentence context and L2 proficiency can modulate bilingual lexical access. The early process is non-selective and bilinguals with more L2 proficiency could make use of sentence context in the early process than less L2 proficiency when reading L2 sentences.
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    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    語言學研究所
    101555006
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0101555006
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[語言學研究所] 學位論文

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