This paper compares the effects of before–after appeals with before-use appeals, also known as problem-focused appeals, and with after-use appeals, also known as outcome-focused appeals, to demonstrate two possible routes of influence that before–after appeals may trigger. First, the before–after appeals can prompt performance-based effect processes, which enhance perceptions of product performance and encourage improved behavioural intentions. Second, they can trigger emotion-based effect processes, which arouse anticipated happiness and anticipatory hope, as well as lead to favourable brand attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 confirm the proposed model; Study 3 shows that consumers' low product involvement triggers a performance-based effect process, whereas their high product involvement triggers emotion-based effect processes.
International Journal of Advertising: The Review of Marketing Communications