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    Title: 行動App之創新研究
    Study for the innovation of mobile Apps
    Authors: 翁菀瑜
    Weng, Wan Yu
    Contributors: 李仁芳
    翁菀瑜
    Weng, Wan Yu
    Keywords: 智慧型手機
    行動App
    創新
    服務創新
    免費商業模式
    使用者體驗
    smartphone
    mobile Apps
    innovation
    service innovation
    free business model
    user experience
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2015-08-24 09:53:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在2012年行動App有持續性的成長,主要成長動能來自於智慧型手機及平板市場的成長。根據國際數據公司IDC的報告與預測, 2012年智慧型手機出貨量將成長至約7億台,年成長率42%,平板出貨量將成長至10,740萬台,年成長率54%。在智慧行動裝置(智慧型手機、平板等)快速成長的帶動之下,行動App的市場規模亦越來越大, 根據IDC預估,全球行動App的下載數量將由2011年的300億次成長至2012年的733億次,成長率達143%。行動App營收來源不僅僅只有單次付費下載及App內付費兩種,還包括了訂閱、App內廣告或下載等其他方式。但是,其實App的獲利方式有很多種,只要讓消費者持續使用App,除了在App內提供服務讓消費者付費來獲利之外,還能透過App連結的廣大生態圈來尋找第三方付費甚至其他模式來獲得營收。
    在App產業內,「免費下載」成為吸引消費者的常用方式,2012年免費App的下載數目已是付費App的10倍以上。因此本論文欲探討在免費App的產業競爭裡,App廠商如何透過「創新」來獲取價值,透過個案研究,欲研究的問題如下:
    1. 廠商透過什麼樣創新的途徑在App市場裡競爭?
    2. 創新為消費者帶來了什麼樣的使用者體驗?
    3. 廠商若是能創造良好的使用者體驗,是否能由此持續獲取價值?
    透過國外成功個案的分析結果,發現廠商透過以下創新途徑在App市場內競爭:1. App技術創新;2. App服務創新,有以下方式,1) 將技術創新轉變或延伸為各式服務;2) 連到更大的夥伴網絡或生態系統,甚至創造自己的生態系,來重新設計服務價值鏈;3) 免費的商業模式,透過贈送最有價值的資源來培養用戶基礎,才有可能在商業模式上創新。廠商透過創新可帶給使用者的經驗如下:1. 創新的使用需求;2. 降低使用者的成本;3.連結其他服務的入口平台。而廠商創造良好的使用者體驗能持續獲取價值,並且在消費者使用過程中獲取利益的方式如下:1. 透過免費服務或產品與使用者產生連結;2. 不斷更新的服務或內容,讓使用者願意持續使用;3. 給予使用者自定功能的服務來互利雙方,若是使用者不用,此功能亦不會影響服務品質;4. 「無廣告」模式能創造良好的消費者體驗。App透過以上方式能增加使用者忠誠度,透過技術或服務創新能改變商業模式;而良好的使用者經驗的確能夠為廠商獲取價值,透過不斷的創新來幫助增加使用者經驗,透過服務鏈的延伸來改變商業模式,就有機會在使用者的使用過程中獲取價值。
    進一步研究台灣廠商現況,透過個案分析發現台灣廠商目前在商業模式上較無創新,但是在技術創新與服務創新的模式上已逐漸累積經驗;台灣廠商對於產品開發的方式分成兩種:一種為產品項目上的連續創新,另一種則為單一產品的漸進式創新;雖然台灣廠商進入App產業的時間不久,但是經過兩年市場經驗的累積,已逐漸了解市場消費者需求,期望能進一步改變商業模式並且朝向國際化市場。
    隨著智慧型手機及平板的普及化,只要消費者願意下載行動App至其智慧行動裝置上,此App就是消費者體驗其服務的入口,再加上設計製作行動App的技術及資金門檻不高,因此各家廠商皆在思考如何透過App強化其使用體驗並且進而獲利,前提建構在消費者「願意」下載並且「持續使用」App,因此透過免費下載的模式來增加消費者的下載及使用意願,「免費」使用降低了使用者的進入門檻,良好的使用者經驗更增加了消費者對此App及其服務的忠誠度;當越來越多消費者使用後形成的規模經濟,廠商就有機會經由商業模式的創新持續獲取價值並獲利。智慧型裝置改變了消費者對電子產品的使用方式,連帶創造行動App產業的興起,藉由行動App讓各家廠商拉近與消費者之間的距離,讓廠商渴望創新以吸引消費者目光,因此行動App生態圈的擴大與成熟指日可待。
    In 2012, mobile Apps markets continue to grow since the growth of smartphone market and tablet market. IDC forecasts smartphone shipment volumes will reach 700 million units with annual growth rate of 42% in 2012. And tablet shipment volume will reach 107 million units with annual growth rate of 54%. The market size of mobile Apps would become larger due to the rapid growth of smart mobile device (smartphones/tablets) market. According to IDC’s prediction, worldwide download numbers of mobile Apps grows at 143% year-over-year from 30 billion times in 2011 to 73 billion times in 2012. Revenue of mobile Apps comes from paid Apps but also from in-App advertisement, in-App purchase, subscription and so on. As long as consumers are willing to continue to use the App, the App vendor may make revenue from their customers by some creative business models but not limited to what we had mentioned above.
    In App market, the most popular way to catch consumers’ eye is “free download.” The download numbers of free Apps are ten times greater than paid Apps in 2012. Although free downloads attract many trial users, App vendors should focus on that how to make their customers re-open the App or continue using the App. Therefore, this theory would like to study on that how App vendors gain value via innovations in the free App competition. Base on case study research, we would like to study the following topics.
    1. What kinds of innovations are created by vendors in the competition of App market?
    2. What kinds of user experiences are created by the innovation?
    3. How do vendors continue to gain value by the great user experiences?

    According to the analysis result, we have found that App venders have two kinds of innovations. One is technical innovation and the other one is service innovation. There are three kinds of methods for service innovation. 1) To transform or to stretch technical innovation to other services. 2) To connect with larger partner networks or ecosystems. Even to create own ecosystem to re-design service value chain. 3) Free business model – it is possible to have an innovation on business model by gifting customers the worthiest resources to gain customer base. Furthermore, customers can gain good user experience via innovations in the following ways. 1) Vendors should try to create new needs. 2) The App can reduce customers’ cost. 3) The App can be the entrance to connect other platform. Therefore, the methods to enhance user experience are as shown below. 1) To connect with customers by free services or free products. 2) To update contents or services continuously to raise customers’ willing-to-use. 3) To give customers customized services. If customers don’t use the service, it will not influence their user experiences. 4) “Non-advertising” can create wonderful user experiences. As a result, App vendors can earn customers’ loyalty according to given above. To sum up, App vendors win competition and change business model by technical innovation and service innovation that creates great user experiences and worthful value as well. If vendors can keep innovating to enhance user experience and can stretch service value chain to change business model, it is possible to capture value in the customers’ experiencing process.
    Lastly, we have studied current situation of Taiwanese App vendors and had found that Taiwanese vendors have no innovation on business model but have some experience on product innovation. There are two kinds of product innovation. One is continuous innovation and the other one is incremental innovation. Although Taiwanese vendors are still new comers in App market, they are finding out customers’ needs and wants. They are expected to have more innovations so that they can be seen in a global market.
    In conclusion, the App is the knocking brick of great mobile experience since most people have smart mobile devices with Apps. Further, designing an App is not a tough barrier. All vendors are thinking about how to enhance user experience and get revenue as well. Free download brings more customers and great user experiences make customers’ loyalty. If more and more customers join to a point of economies of scale, vendors will have chance to innovate and to make value sustainably. Smart mobile devices change users’ behavior and create the market of mobile Apps. Mobile apps make vendors and customers closer so that vendors eager innovations to catch customers. App market is expected to become mature in the near future.
    Reference: 一、 中文參考資料
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    99359033
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0099359033
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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