English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  全文筆數/總筆數 : 71578/104447 (69%)
造訪人次 : 19157993      線上人數 : 513
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
搜尋範圍 查詢小技巧:
  • 您可在西文檢索詞彙前後加上"雙引號",以獲取較精準的檢索結果
  • 若欲以作者姓名搜尋,建議至進階搜尋限定作者欄位,可獲得較完整資料
  • 進階搜尋
    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/77324


    題名: 再思「償債能力」之人道主義因素:尼加拉瓜案例之探討
    Bring Humanitarianism back into Debt Sustainability: The Case of Nicaragua
    作者: 范宇睿
    貢獻者: 鄧中堅
    Teng, Chung Chian
    范宇睿
    關鍵詞: 人權

    尼加拉瓜
    Human Rights
    External Debt Sustainability
    Nicaragua
    日期: 2015
    上傳時間: 2015-08-03 13:45:34 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究旨在討論外債和人權之間的協同作用和緊張關係,藉由探討聯合世界銀行國際貨幣基金組織債務對低收入國家的償債能力,尤其著重尼加拉瓜的例子。筆者發現有效支持兩個變量理論的連結,另外,本研究強調了政治決策改變人權債務的結果。

    文獻探討發現過往討論各國償債能力忽略了人權因素,如此會抑止:(一)完成其任務,指導已納入人權要素在其發展援助干預的多邊和雙邊貸款;(二)審議侵犯人權的行為,特別是公民權利和政治權利的破壞治理和機構質量的因素;和(三)解決其減少債務相關的風險政策的人權影響。

    研究分析的結果發現高度的侵犯人權行為(特別是公民權利和政治權利),不僅導致政治不穩定,也破壞了宏觀經濟的穩定。
    The author's research studies the synergies and tensions between external debt and human rights. To do this, the study examines the joint world bank-international monetary fund Debt Sustainability Framework for Low Income Countries, whilst paying particular attention to Nicaragua’s case. The author finds support for the validity of theoretical arguments that link the two variables. Specifically, the investigation examines and specifies how political decisions as a result of changes in human rights impact debt sustainability as well as and how high debt affects respect of human rights.
    The review of the Debt Sustainability Framework revealed that the framework ignores human rights issues in its methodology, which inhibits the framework’s ability to: i) accomplish its mandate to provide guidance to multilateral and bilateral lenders that have incorporated human rights elements in their development aid interventions; ii) to consider human rights violations, especially civil and political rights as a factor that undermines the quality of governance and institutions; and iii) address human rights impacts of the policies which reduce debt related risks.
    The inclusive growth diagnostic conducted by Nicaragua provided an in-depth study of the growth drivers (repayment capacity) and factors that are hindering their growth. As a result of the analysis, it revealed that high human rights violations (specially civil and political rights) have not only led to political instability, but also undermined macroeconomic stability - upsetting macroeconomic stability and increasing indebtedness.
    參考文獻: Abouharb, M. R. and D. L. Cingraneli. 2006b. The Effects of Structural Adjustment Agreements on Government Respect for Workers’ Rights, 1981-2003. Paper read at Annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, at Philadelphia.
    Abouharb, M. R. and D. Cingranelli. 2007. Human Rights and Structural Adjustment. New York, United States: Cambridge University Press.
    Abouharb, M. R. and D. L. Cingranelli. 2006a. "The Human Rights Effects of World Bank Structural Adjustment, 1981–2000," International Studies Quarterly(50): 233-262.
    Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. Robinson. 2004. "Institutions as the Fundamental Cause of Long Run Growth," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers Series(10481).
    Acemoglu, D., S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson. 2001. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," The American Economic Review, 91(5): 1369-1401.
    Acevedo , A. 2007. "Algunas implicaciones del proceso de “Transición Demográfica” en Nicaragua." Retrieved from Wordpress. Retrieved from https://alvaroaltamirano.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/la-transicion-demograficaadolfo-acevedo.pdf.
    Acevedo, I. 2014. "Brechas Salariales en la Profesión Docente: El Caso de Nicaragua," Revista de Economía BCN, 1: 99.
    Acevedo Vogl, A. J. 2014a. "The Impact of Harmonized Tax Law." Retrieved from Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/index.php/descargas/?did=386.
    Acevedo Vogl, A. J. 2014b. "Impacto de la Ley de Concertación Tributaria sobre Distintos Sectores y sobre la Recaudación." Retrieved from Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2014/10/ImpactoLCT.pdf.
    Acevedo Vogl, A. J. 2015. "Los cambios a la ley de concertación tributaria : ¿hacia nuevas inequidades?" Retrieved from Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2015/03/ESTUDIO_LCT_website.pdf.
    Aguiar, M. and M. Amador. 2013. "Sovereign Debt: A Review," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper(19388): 1-50.
    Aisen, A. and F. J. Veiga. 2013. "How Does Political Instability Affect Economic Growth?," European Journal of Political Economy, 29: 151-167.
    Alesina, A. and A. Drazen. 1991. "Why are Stabilizations Delayed?," The American Economic Review, 81(5): 1170-1188.
    Alesina, A. and T. Guido. 1989. "External Debt Capital Flight and Political Risk," Journal of International Economics, 27: 199-220.
    Alesina, A. and R. Perotti. 1994. "The Political Economy of Budget Deficits," Nationa Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers: 1-57.
    Allen, R., R. Hemming, and B. H. Potter. 2013. The International Handbook of Public Financial Management. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Álvarez, W., E. Cruz, and E. Romero. 2008. "Ortega confirma pago de Cenis." Retrieved from La Prensa. Retrieved from http://archivo.laprensa.com.ni/archivo/2008/febrero/16/noticias/nacionales/243555.shtml.
    Américas, D. L. 2015. "Familia Ortega monopoliza medios de comunicación en Nicaragua." Retrieved from Diario Las Américas. Retrieved from http://www.diariolasamericas.com/4849_centroamerica/2965310_familia-ortega-monopoliza-medios-de-comunicacion-en-nicaragua.html.
    Baduel, B. and R. Price 2012. "Evolution of Debt Sustainability Analysis in Low-Income Countries: Some Aggregate Evidence." Retrieved from The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2012/wp12167.pdf.
    Baker, D. J. 1990. The Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: BMJ Books.
    Baldacci, E., S. Gupta, and C. Mulas-Granados. 2010. "Restoring Debt Sustainability After Crises: Implications for the Fiscal Mix," IMF Working Paper.
    Bannister, G. J. and L.-D. Barrot. 2011. "A Debt Intolerance Framework Applied to Central America, Panama and the Dominican Republic," International Monetary Fund Working Papers.
    Barro, R. J. 1979. "On the determination of the public," On the determination of the public, 85(5): 940-971.
    Bashir, S. and J. Luque. 2012. "Equity in Tertiary Education In Central America: An Overview," The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series(6180): 1-46.
    Berg, A., E. Berkes, C. Pattillo, A. F. Presbitero, and Y. Yakhshilikov. 2014. "Assessing Bias and Accuracy in the World Bank- IMF's Debt Sustainability Framework for Low-Income Countries," IMF Working Paper.
    Bird, G. 2001. "IMF Programs: Do they Work Can they be made to Work Better?," Wold Development, 29(11): 1849-1865.
    Bonilla, S. 2011. Odious Debt: Law-and-Economics Perspectives. Germany: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH.
    Booth, J. A. and M. A. Seligson. 2010. "Political Culture of Democracy in Nicaragua, 2010: Democratic Consolidation in the Americas in Hard Times." Retrieved from The Latin American Public Opinion Project. Retrieved from http://www.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/nicaragua/2010-political-culture.pdf.
    Briscoe, I. 2006. "Debt crises, political change and the state in the developing world," 06(01).
    Buchanan, J. M. and R. E. Wagner. 2000. The Collected Works of James M. Buchanan: Democracy in Deficit. Vol. Vol. 8. Indianapolis: Liberty Funds.
    Buffie, E., A. Berg, C. Pattillo, R. Portillo, and L.-F. Zanna. 2012. "Public Investment, Growth and Debt Sustainability: Putting Together the Pieces." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund Working Papers. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2012/wp12144.pdf.
    Burnside, C. and D. Dollar. 1998. "Aid, the Incentive Regime and Poverty Reduction," World Bank Policy Research Working Paper(1937): 1-18.
    Cagé, J. 2013. "MEASURING POLICY PERFORMANCE: Can we do better than the World Bank?" Retrieved from r JICA/IPD Africa Task Force Meeting. Retrieved from https://jica-ri.jica.go.jp/publication/assets/Measuring%20Policy%20Performance,%20Cage%20%20-%20JICA%20IPD%20Working%20Papers.pdf.
    Caner, M., T. Grennes, and F. Koehler-Geib. 2010. "“Finding the Tipping Point—When Sovereign Debt Turns Bad”," World Bank Policy Research Working Paper(5391): 1-15.
    Cassimon, D., B. Moreno-Dodson, and Q. Wodon. 2008. "Debt Sustainability for Low-Income Countries: A Review of Standard and Alternative Concepts," MPRA Paper.
    CBN. 2005. Nicaragua en la Iniciativa HIPC: Memoria y Perspectiva. Managua: Central Bank of Nicaragua.
    CBN. 2009. "Programa Economic y Financiera 2007 - 2010." Retrieved from Central Bank of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.bcn.gob.ni/publicaciones/periodicidad/eventual/indicadores_sociales/documentos/indicadores_sociales_07.pdf.
    CBN. 2010. "50 años de Estadísticas Macroeconómicas: 1960-2009." Retrieved from The Central Bank of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.bcn.gob.ni/publicaciones/periodicidad/eventual/50_anios/informe_50_anios.pdf.
    CBN. 2014a. "Central Bank of Nicaragua." Cenral Bank of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/sector_externo/deuda_externa/6-21.htm.
    CBN. 2014b. "Informe de Cooperación Oficial Externa 2013." Retrieved from the Central Bank of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.bcn.gob.ni/publicaciones/periodicidad/semestral/cooperacion/2013/ICOE_2.pdf.
    CBN. 2014c. "Informe de Deuda Pública de Nicaragua Año 2013." Retrieved from Central Bank of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.bcn.gob.ni/publicaciones/periodicidad/anual/deuda_publica/deuda_publica.pdf.
    CBN. 2015. "Informe Annual 2013." Retrieved From Central Bank of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.bcn.gob.ni/publicaciones/periodicidad/anual/informe_anual/informe_anual_2013.pdf.
    CENIH. 2014. "Impunidad de las Violaciones a los Derechos Civiles y políticos en Nicaragua." Retrieved from Centro Nicaraguense de Derechos Humanos. Retrieved from http://www.cenidh.org/media/documents/docfile/Investigacion_PagInternWEB.pdf.
    Center, T. C. 2011. "Las Elecciones de 2011 en Nicaragua." Retrieved From the Carter Center. Retrieved from http://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/peace/americas/Nicaragua_2011_report_Span2_post.pdf.
    CESifo. 2008. Sustainability of Public Debt. Edited by R. Neck and J.-E. Sturm. Vol. Seminar Series. Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
    Chamorro, C. F. and C. Salinas. 2011. "Las cuentas secretas de Albanisa." Retrieved from Confidencial. Retrieved from http://www.confidencial.com.ni/articulo/3388/las-cuentas-secretas-de-albanisa.
    CINCO. 2011. "Nicaragua Elecciones 2011." Retrieved from Centro de Investigaciones de la Comunicación. Retrieved from http://cinco.org.ni/archive/386.pdf.
    Close, D., E. Cuadra, K. Deonandan, D. R. Dye, Hoyt, Katherine, K. Kampwirth, A. Pérez-Baltodano, and S. Marti Puig. 2008. Undoing Democracy: The Politics of Electoral Caudillismo. Lanham, United States: Lexington Books.
    Commission, E. 2007. "Nicaragua Country Strategy Paper 2007 - 2013." Retreived from The European Commision. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/csp-nicaragua-2007-2013_en.pdf.
    Conservancy, M. a. T. N. 2010. Analisis de Vacios de Conservacion de los Ecosistemas Mariono-Costero de Nicaragua 2010. Managua: Gobierno de Nicaragua.
    Contreras, F. 2011. "Déficits de institucionalidad democrática en Nicaragua y su impacto en el desarrollo económico, político y social." Retrieved from Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Retrieved from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/fesamcentral/08266.pdf.
    Cordella, T., L. A. Ricci, and M. Ruiz-Arranz. 2010. "Debt Overhang or Debt Irrelevance?," IMF Staff Papers(57): 1–24.
    Cordón P., A. 2011. "Desempleo e inactividad juvenil en Nicaragua," Documentos de Trabajo.
    Corsetti, G., P. Pesenti, and N. Roubini. 1998. "What Caused the ASIAN Currency and Financial Crisis Part I: Macroeconomic Overview," National Beurau of Economic Research Working Paper: 1-51.
    Cukierman, A. and A. H. Meltzer. 1989. "A Political Theory of Government Debt and Deficits in a Neo-Ricardian Framework," The American Economic Review, 79(4): 713-732.
    Cushman, T. 2012. Handbook of Human Rights. New York, United States of America: Routledge.
    Czerkawski, C. 1991. Theoretical and Policy-Oriented Aspects of the External Debt Economics. New York: Springer.
    D’Hollander, D., A. Marx, and J. Wouters. 2013. "Integratng Human Rights in Developing Policy: Mapping Donor Strategies and Practices." Retrieved from The International Trade Union Confederation. Retrieved from http://www.fp7-frame.eu/wp-content/materiale/w-papers/WP108-Dhollander-Marx-Wouters.pdf.
    de Wolff, J. 1998. The Political Economy of Fiscal Decisions: The Strategic Role of Public Debt. New York: Springer.
    Development, C. o. G. a. 2008. The Growth Report: Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
    Di Bella, G., L. Norton, J. Ntamatungiro, S. Ogawa, I. Issouf, and M. Santoro 2015. "Energy Subsidies in Latin America and the Caribbean: Stocktaking and Policy Challenges," IMF Working Paper(30): 1-79.
    Diwan, I. and D. Rodrik. 1992. "External Debt, Adjustment and Burden Sharing: A Unified Framework," Princeton Studies in International Finance(72): 1-62.
    Dolezal, A., A. M. Majano, A. Ochs, and R. Palencia. 2013. "The Way Forward for Renewable Energy in Central America." Retrieved from Worldwide Institute. Retrieved from http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/The%20Way%20Forward%20for%20Renewable%20Energy%20in%20Central%20America_low-res2.pdf.
    Dornbusch, R. and M. Draghi. 1990. Public debt management: theory and history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Easterly, W. 1992. "How Much Does Policy Affect Growth?," Cuadernos de Economía, 29(87): 295-305.
    Easterly , W. 2001. "The Lost Decades: Developing Countries’ Stagnation in Spite of Policy Reform 1980–1998," Journal of Economic Growth(6): 135-157.
    Easterly, W. 2005. "National Polcies and Economic Growth: A Reappraisal," in Handbook of Economic Growth: North-Holland, 1015-1059.
    Eaton, J. and R. Fernandez. 1995. "Sovereign Debt," in Handbook of International Economics Vol. 3, London: North-Holland, 2031-2107.
    ECLAC. 2009a. "Población en Situación de Indigencia y Pobreza según Nivel Educativo, Sexo y Área Gepgráfica." Retrieved from Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://interwp.cepal.org/sisgen/ConsultaIntegrada.asp?idIndicador=2278&idioma=i.
    ECLAC. 2009b. "Population Living Below the Exterme Poverty and Poverty Lines by Age, Sex and Geographic Area." Retrieved from Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://interwp.cepal.org/sisgen/ConsultaIntegrada.asp?idIndicador=2282&idioma=i.
    ECLAC. 2013. "Government Finance Statistics: Tax revenue." Retrieved from Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://interwp.cepal.org/sisgen/ConsultaIntegrada.asp?idIndicador=821&idioma=i.
    ECLAC. 2014. "Centroamérica: Estadísticas del Subsector Eléctrico 2013." Retrieved from the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribbean. Retrieved from http://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/37518/S1421122_es.pdf?sequence=1.
    ECLAC. 2015a. "Literacy Rate of People Ages 15 years and Over by Sex." Retrieved from UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://interwp.cepal.org/sisgen/ConsultaIntegrada.asp?idIndicador=184&idioma=i.
    ECLAC. 2015b. "Years of schooling completed by the economically active population 15 years of age and over, by sex and geographical area." Retrieved from Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://interwp.cepal.org/sisgen/ConsultaIntegradaFlashProc_HTML.asp.
    Eisenhardt, K. M. 1989. "Agency Theory: An Assessment and Review," The Academy of Management Review, 14(1): 57-74.
    Envío, R. 2012. "Elecciones Municipales 2012: Crónica de un final anunciado." Retrieved from Revist Envío. Retrieved from http://www.envio.org.ni/articulo/4611.
    Feldstein, M. 2002. "Economic and financial crises in emerging market economies: overview of prevention and management," NBER Working Paper(8837).
    Ferrarini, B. 2008. "Proposal for a Contigency Debt Sustainability Framework," World Development, 36(2): 2547-2565.
    Ferrarini, B. 2009. "Policy, Vulnerability and the New Debt Sustainability Framework," Journal of International Development, Vol. 36(No. 2): 895–914.
    Ferrarini, B., R. Jha, and A. Ramayandi. 2012. Public Debt Sustainability in Developing Asia. New York: Asian Development Bank and Routledge.
    Forum, W. E. 2014. The Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
    Fosu , A. K. 2003. "Political Instability and Export Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Development Studies, 39(4): 68-83.
    Franko, L. G. and M. J. Seiber. 1979. Developing Country Debt. New York: Pergamon Press Inc.
    FUNIDES. 2013. "Informe de Institucionalidad Económica." Retrieved from FUNIDES. Retrieved from http://www.funides.com/publicacion.php?pub=iie_01.
    Germanwatch. 2015. "Clobal Climate Risk Index 2015." Retrieved from German Watch. Retrieved from http://germanwatch.org/en/download/10333.pdf.
    Giordano, R. and P. Tommasino. 2011. "What determines debt intolerance? The role of political and monetary institutions," European Journal of Political Economy(27): 471–484.
    Gómez Sabaini, J. C. and J. P. Jiménez. 2012. "Tax structure and tax evasion in Latin America," Serie Macroeconomía del Desarrollo: 1-81.
    Grilli, V., D. Masciandaro, G. Tabellini, E. Macilinvaud, and M. Pagano. 1991. "Political and Monetary Institutions and Public Financial Policies in the Industrial Countries," Economic Policy, 6(13): 341-392.
    Gritzner, C. F. 2010. Nicaragua. New York: Infobase Publishing.
    Grossman, M. 1972. "On the Concept of Health Capital and the Demand for Health," Journal of Political Economy: 223-55.
    GTZ. 2008. Adaptation and Refinement of the World Bank’s“Country Policy and Institutional Assessment” (CPIA). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit.
    Gunter, B. G. 2007. MDG-Consistent Debt Sustainability: How to Ease the Tension between Achieving the MDGs and Maintaining Debt Sustainability. Tertiary New York: United Nations.
    Gunter, B. G. 2011. "Achieving the MDGs and Ensuring Debt Sustainability," Third World Quarterly, 32(1): 45-63.
    Gunter, B. G., J. Rahman, and H. Shi. 2009. "Linking Social Development with the capacity to carry debt: towards an MDG consistent Debt Sustainability Concept," Development Policy Review, 27(3): 269-286.
    Gutierrez, C., P. Paci, and M. Ranzani. 2008. Making Work Pay in Nicaragua Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction. Washington D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank.
    Hadjimichael, M. 1994. "Effect of Macroeconomic Stability on Growth, Savings and Investment: An Empirial Investigation," International Monetary Fund Working Papers(98).
    Hansen, H. and F. Tarp. 2000. "Aid effectiveness disputed," Journal of International Development(12): 375-398.
    Haughton, J. and S. R. Khandker. 2009. Handbook on Poverty and Inequality. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
    Hausermann, J. 2006. "Human Rights Based Approach to Development." Retrieved from the Child Right International Network. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDMQFjAF&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.crin.org%2Fdocs%2Fresources%2Fpublications%2Fhrbap%2FHRA_human_development.doc&ei=-280VY-fB9jW8gXM3YGgDw&usg=AFQjCNEVITWjU1VfUiUd-pe54iS98.
    Helleiner, G. K. 1992. "The IMF and World Wank and Africa´s Adjustment and External Debt Problems: An Unofficial View," World Development, 20(6): 779-792.
    Hjertholm, P. 2003. "Theoretical and empirical foundations HIPC Debt Sustainability Targets," The Journal of Development Studies, 39(6): 67-100.
    House, F. 2013. Freedom House.
    House, F. 2014. "Nicaragua 2014." Retreived from Freedom House. Retrieved from https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2014/nicaragua#.VQkju9KG-L0.
    Howard, R. 1983. "The Full-Belly Thesis: Should Economic Rights Take Priority over Civil and Political Rights? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," Human Rights Quaterly, 5(4): 467-490.
    IADB. 2008. "Annual Report 2007." Retrieved from the Intern-American Development Bank. Retrieved from http://publications.iadb.org/bitstream/handle/11319/1386/Annual%20Report%202007.pdf?sequence=1.
    Ianchovichina, E. and S. Lundstrom. 2009. "Inclusive Growth Analytics: Framework and Application," World Bank Policy Research Working Paper(4851): 1-42.
    IDA-IFC. 2012. "Country Partnership Strategy for the Republic of Nicaragua." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/10/24/000386194_20121024011712/Rendered/PDF/692310CAS0P1280Official0Use0Only090.pdf.
    IDA-IMF. 1999. "HIPC Initiative-A Progress Report." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEBTDEPT/ProgressReports/20268736/Development_Committee_HIPC_Initiative_Progress_Report_Sept._1999.pdf.
    IDA-IMF. 2000. "Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative - Status of Implementation." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEBTDEPT/ProgressReports/20253311/StatusImplementatonSept2000.pdf.
    IDA. 2004. "Debt Sustainability and Financing Terms in IDA14: Technical Analysis of Issues and Options." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/09/22/000012009_20040922095958/Rendered/PDF/300080GLB.pdf.
    IDA. 2005. "Additions to IDA Resources: Fourteenth Replenishment." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/03/02/000012009_20050302091128/Rendered/PDF/31693.pdf.
    IDA. 2009. "IDA’s Performance Based Allocation and Development Results: An Update." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/IDA/Resources/Seminar%20PDFs/73449-1257448780237/IDA15MTR_Allocation_Results.pdf.
    IDA, I. a. 1999. Heavily Indebted Poor Country Iniciative: Strengthening the link between Debt Relief and Povery Reduction. Tertiary Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
    IEEP. 2014. "Novena reforma constitucional 2014." Retrieved from El Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2014/11/NovenaReformaConstitucional.pdf.
    IEG. 2008. Public Sector Reform: What Works and Why? An IEG Evaluation of World Bank Support. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
    IEG. 2010. The World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
    IEG. 2014. World Bank Group Assistance to Low-Income Fragile and Conflict-Affected States. Washington D.C., United States: The World Bank.
    Iley, R. A. and M. K. Lewis. 2007. Untangling the US Deficit: Evaluating Causes, Cures and Global Imbalances. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
    IMF-BW. 2013. "Staff Guidance Note on the Application of the Joint Debt Sustainability Framework for Low Income Countries." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2013/110513.pdf.
    IMF-IDA. 1999. "Modifications to the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEBTDEPT/PolicyPapers/20253088/1999-Sept17-Modification-5.pdf.
    IMF-IDA. 2004. "Debt Sustainability in Low-Income Countries—Proposal for an Operational." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/sustain/2004/020304.pdf.
    IMF-IDA. 2005. "Operational Framework for Debt Sustainability Assessments in Low-Income." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund Countries—Further Considerations. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/External/np/pp/eng/2005/032805.pdf.
    IMF-IDA. 2010. "Staff Guidance Note on the Application of the Joint Bank-Fund Debt Sustainability Framework for Low-Income Countries." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2010/012210.pdf.
    IMF-WB. 1998. "The Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries: Review and Outlook." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund Heavily - Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)- Documents. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/hipc/review/hipcrev.pdf.
    IMF-WB. 1999. "The HIPC Initiative: Delivering Debt Relief to Poor Countries." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund Heavily - Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)- Documents. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/hipc/art0299.pdf.
    IMF-WB. 2012a. "DSA Template." Retrieved from the World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEBTDEPT/Resources/468980-1190907436115/LIC_DSA_Template.zip.
    IMF-WB. 2012b. "DSA Template." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/dsa/templ/dsatemp.xlsm.
    IMF-WB. 2012c. "Revisiting the Debt Sustainability Framework for Low-Income Countries." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2012/011212.pdf.
    IMF-WB. 2013. Nicaragua, Staff Report for the 2013 Article IV Consultation - Debt Sustainabiltiy Analysis.
    IMF. 1991. "Nicaragua Stand By Arrangement." Retrieved fron Nicaraguan Central Bank. Retrieved from http://www.bcn.gob.ni/estadisticas/acuerdos/NicaraguaStandByArrangementSept91.pdf.
    IMF. 1996. Annual Report. Washington D.C., United States of America: International Monetary Fund.
    IMF. 2001. "Nicaragua: 2001 Article IV Consultation." Retrieved from The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2001/cr01171.pdf.
    IMF. 2002a. "Assessing Sustainability." Retried from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/sus/2002/eng/052802.pdf.
    IMF. 2002b. "Assessing Sustainability." Retrieved from The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/sus/2002/eng/052802.pdf.
    IMF. 2003a. "Debt Sustainability in Low-Income Countries—Towards a Forward-Looking Strategy." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/sustain/2003/052303.pdf.
    IMF. 2003b. The IMF and recent capital account crises: Indonesia, Korea, Brazil. Washington D.C.: The International Monetary Fund.
    IMF. 2003c. "Nicaragua 2002: Article IV Consultation and Request for a Three-Year Arrengement under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility and for Interim Assistance under the Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries." Retrieved from The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2003/cr0324.pdf.
    IMF. 2004a. "Debt Sustainability in Low-Income Countries—Proposal for an Operational Framework and Policy Implications." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/sustain/2004/020304.pdf.
    IMF. 2004b. "Debt Sustainability in Low Income Countries - Further Considerations on an Operational Framework and Policy Implications." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/np/pdr/sustain/2004/091004.pdf.
    IMF. 2005. "Are Fund Staff Projections of Debt More Optimistic Under Program Contexts?" Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2005/110905.pdf.
    IMF. 2010. "Preserving Debt Sustainability in Low-Income Countries in the Wake of the Global Financial Crisis." Retrieved from International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2010/040110.pdf.
    IMF. 2013a. Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Iniciative and Multilateral Debt Relief Iniciative Statistical Update. Tertiary Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
    IMF. 2013b. "Nicaragua, Article IV Consultation - Staff Report, Press Release on Executive Board of Discussion, Statement by Executive Director for Nicaragua." Retrieved from The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2013/cr13377.pdf.
    IMF. 2013c. Staff Guidance Note on the Application of the Joint Bank-Fund Debt Sustainability Framework for Low Income Countries. Tertiary Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
    IMF. 2013d. "Staff Guidance Note on the Application of the Joint Bank-Fund Debt Sustainability Framework for Low Income Countries." Retrieved from The International Monetary Fund. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2013/110513.pdf.
    IMF, BIS, EUROSTAT, OECD, P. Club, UNCTAD, and WB. 2014. External Debt Statistics : Guide for Compilers and Users. Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
    IMF, I. a. 2000. Decision Point Document enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Country Iniciative. Tertiary Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
    INIDE. 2009. "Encuesta de Hogares sobre Medición del Nivel de Vida." Retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Información de Desarrollo. Retrieved from http://www.inide.gob.ni/bibliovirtual/publicacion/Informe%20EMNV%202009.pdf.
    INIET-ANJF. 2015. "Balance de la Ley de Concertación Tributaria." Retrieved from Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas (IEEPP). Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2015/05/Balance-de-la-LCT.pdf.
    IPRI. 2015. International Property Rights Index.
    Jácome H., L. I. 2008. "Central Bank Involvement in Banking Crises in Latin America," IMF Working Papers(135): 1-51.
    Johnson , C. A. 2013. "Potential Output and Output Gap in Central America, Panama and Dominican Republic," IMF Working Paper(WP/13/145): 1-41.
    Joseph, S. 2011. Blame it on the WTO? A Human Rights Critique. Oxford, Great Britain: Oxford University Press.
    Kanbur, R., E. Detragiache, P. Wickham, and S. Claessens. 1996. "Analytical Aspects of the Debt Problems of Heavily Indebted Poor Countries," World Bank Policy Research Working Papers(1618).
    Kaufmann, D. 2004. "Human Rights and Governance: The Empirical Challenge." Retrieved from the World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWBIGOVANTCOR/Resources/humanrights.pdf.
    Kaufmann, D. and A. Kraay. 2008. "Governance Indicators: Where Are We, Where Should We Be Going?," World Bank Research Observer, 23(1): 1-30.
    Kaufmann, D. and P. C. Vicente. 2011. "Legal Corruption," Economics & Politics, 23(2): 195-219.
    Keeley, B. 2012. From Aid to Development: The Global Fight against Poverty. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.
    Klugman, J. 2002. A Sourcebook for Poverty Reduction Strategies: Volume 1: Core Techniques and Cross-Cutting Issues. Washington D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and The World Bank.
    Knack, S. 2013. "It’s Only Words Validating the CPIA Governance Assessments," Policy Research Working Paper(6526).
    Kolb, R. W. 2011. Sovereign Debt: From Safety to Default. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Kraay, A. and V. Nehru. 2004. "When Is External Debt Sustainable?," World Bank Economic Review, 20(3): 341 - 365.
    Krayenbuehl, T. E. 2001. Cross Border Exposures and Country Risk: An Assessment and Monitoring. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited.
    Krugman, P. 1988. "Financing vs Forgiving: A Debt Overhang," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers Series(2486): 1-34.
    Leader, S. and D. Ong. 2011. Global Project Finance, Human Rights and Sustainable Development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Lopez, I. 2013. "Los 'armados' del Kilambé." Retrieved from El Confidencial. Retrieved from http://www.confidencial.com.ni/articulo/13423/los-039-armados-039-del-kilambe.
    Macías Vázquez, A. 2008. "La reestructuración de la deuda soberana: multilateralismo, accion colectiva y canje," Problemas del desarrollo: Revista Latinoamericana de economía, 39(155): 53-76.
    Mankiw, N. G. 2015. Principles of Economics. Translated by M.-C. Wang. Taipei: Cegage Learning.
    Martí i Puig, S. 2013. "Nicaragua: the consolidation of a hybrid regime," Revista de Ciencia Política, 33(1): 269-286.
    Martí i Puig, S. and D. Close. 2009. ¿Qué queda de la revolución? Barcelona: Bellaterra.
    Medina , F. and M. Galván 2014. "Crecimiento económico, pobreza y distribución del ingreso: Fundamentos teóricos y evidencia empírica para América Latina, 1997-2007," Serie Estudios Estadísticos(82): 51.
    Megliani, M. 2015. Sovereign Debt. New york: Springer.
    MFC. 2007. "Informe de Liquidacón del Presupuesto General de la Repúblic 2008." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/informes/2007/INFORME_-20EJECUCION_PRESUPUESTARIA_2007.pdf/view.
    MFC. 2008. "Informe de Liquidacón del Presupuesto General de la Repúblic 2008." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/informes/2008/Informe_liquidacion_2008.pdf/view.
    MFC. 2009. "Informe de Liquidacón del Presupuesto General de la Repúblic 2009." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/informes/2009/INFORME%20DE%20LIQUIDACION%20DEL%20PRESUPUESTO%20GENERAL%20DE%20LA%20REPUBLICA%202009.pdf/view.
    MFC. 2010. "Informe de Liquidacón del Presupuesto General de la Repúblic 2010." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/informes/2010/INFORME%20DE%20LIQUIDACION%20DEL%20PRESUPUESTO%20GENERAL%20DE%20LA%20REPUBLICA%202010.pdf/view.
    MFC. 2011. "Informe de Liquidacón del Presupuesto General de la Repúblic 2011." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/informes/2011/Informe%20de%20Liquidacion%20del%20Presupuesto%20General%20de%20la%20%20Republica%202011.pdf/view.
    MFC. 2012. "Informe de Liquidacón del Presupuesto General de la Repúblic 2012." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/informes/2012/Informe%20de%20Liquidacion%20del%20Presupuesto%20General%20de%20la%20Republica%202012.pdf/view.
    MFC. 2013. "Informe de Liquidacón del Presupuesto General de la Repúblic 2013." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/informes/2013/INFORME%20DE%20LIQUIDACION%20DEL%20PGR%202013.pdf/view.
    MHCP. 2012. "Marco Presupuestario de Mediano Plazo." Retrieved from the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/presupuesto/mediano-plazo/MPMP_2012_2015.pdf.
    MHCP. 2013. "Nicaragua: Programa Económico y Financiero 2013-2016." Retrieved from The Ministry of Finance and Public Credit of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.hacienda.gob.ni/documentos/programa-economico-financiero-2013-2016/PEF2013-2016.pdf/at_download/file.
    Mihr, A. and M. Gibney. 2014. The Sage Handbook of Human Rights. Vol. 1 and 2. London: Sage.
    MINSA. 2008. "Politica Nacional de Salud 2008." Retrieved from the World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s18995es/s18995es.pdf.
    Miranda Aburto, W. 2013. "Crimen de estado impune." Retrieved from El Confidencial. Retrieved from http://www.confidencial.com.ni/articulo/18050/crimen-de-estado-impune.
    Miranda Aburto, W. 2014a. "El Tule militarizado tras expulsión de chinos." Retrieved from Confidencial. Retrieved from http://www.confidencial.com.ni/articulo/20479/.
    Miranda Aburto, W. 2014b. "Allanan casa de campesina opositora al Canal." Retrived from Confidencial. Retrieved from http://www.confidencial.com.ni/articulo/20483/.
    Miranda Aburto, W. 2015. "CENIDH: policía cometió seis delitos." Retrieved from Confidencial. Retrieved from http://www.confidencial.com.ni/articulo/20630/.
    Morales Sarriera, J., G. Araya, T. Serebrisky, C. Briceño-Garmendía, and J. Schwartz. 2013. "Benchmarking Container Port Technical Efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis," World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 6680: 1-30.
    Morley, M. H. 1994. Washington, Somoza, and the Sandinistas: State and Regime in U.S. Policy Toward Nicaragua, 1969-1981. New York, United States of America: Cambridge University Press.
    Morris, K. E. 2010. Unfinished Revolution: Daniel Ortega and Nicaragua’s Struggle for Liberation. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books.
    Muzira, S. and D. Hernandez de Diaz. 2014a. "ethinking Infrastructure Delivery: Case Study of a Green, Inclusive, and Cost-effective Road Program in Nicaragua." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18952.
    Muzira, S. and D. Hernandez de Diaz. 2014b. "Rethinking Infrastructure Delivery: Case Study of a Green, Inclusive, and Cost-effective Road Program in Nicaragua." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/18952.
    NAS. 2014. El canal interoceánico por Nicaragua: aportesal debate. Managua, Nicaragua: La Prensa.
    Navarrette, A. E. 2012. "Responsabilidad Fiscal Contra la Pobreza: Analísis Comparativo del Gasto en Pobreza Nicaragua - Honduras." Retrieved from Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/index.php/descargas/?did=185.
    NIC-SCJ. 2009. "Sentencias Penales Conforme al Código de Instrucción Criminal Año 2009." Retrieved from Nicaraguan Supreme Court of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.poderjudicial.gob.ni/pjupload/spenal/pdf/in09.pdf.
    Nicaragua, G. o. 2001. "A Strengthened Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPRS1/Resources/Country-Papers-and-JSAs/Nicaragua_PRSP.pdf.
    Nicaragua, G. o. 2012. "Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano 2012 - 2016." Retieved from Government of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.pndh.gob.ni/documentos/pndhActualizado/pndh.pdf.
    North, D. C. 1987. "Institutions, Transaction Costs and Economic Growth," Economic Inquiry, 25(3): 419-428.
    North, D. C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    North, D. C. 1991. "Institutions," The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1): 97-112.
    North, D. C. 2009. Understanding the Process of Economic Change. New Jersey, United States of America: Princeton University Press.
    Ocampo , J. A. 1991. "Collapse and (Incomplete) Stabilization of the Nicaraguan Economy," in The Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America: University of Chicago Press, 331-368.
    Ocampo, J. A. 2011. "A Development-Friendly Reform of the International Financial Architecture," Politics & Society, 39(3): 315-330.
    ODI. 1999. "What can We do with a Rights Based Approach to Development?," ODI Briefing Papers(3).
    OECD. 2006. Integrating Human Rights Into Development. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
    OECD. 2008. "The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda of Action." The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/34428351.pdf.
    OECD. 2011. "The Busan Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation." Retrieved from the OECD. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/49650173.pdf.
    Official, L. G. D. 2010. "Presidential Decree 3-2010," La Gaceta Diario Official, CXIV(6): 142-143.
    Official, L. G. D. 2013. "Ley No. 840. Ley Especial para el Desarrollo de Infraestructura y Transporte Nicaragüense Atingente a El Canal, Zonas de Libre Comercio e Infraestructuras Asociadas," La Gaceta Diario Ofical: 4972-4983.
    Official, L. G. D. 2014. "Ley N° 891. Ley de Reformas y Adiciones a la Ley Nº 822, Ley de Concertación Tributaría," La Gaceta Diario Official, CXVIII(240): 10655-10673.
    OSF. 2014. "Los Medio Digitales: Nicaragua." Retrieved from The Open Society fountation. Retrieved from http://cinco.org.ni/archive/525.pdf.
    Oxfam. 2010. "La realidad de la ayuda 2009 Una evaluación independiente de la ayuda y las políticas de desarrollo en tiempos de crisis." Retrieved From Intermón Oxfam. Retrieved from http://www.oxfamintermon.org/sites/default/files/documentos/files/100302_realidad.pdf.pdf.
    Pacheco Gaitán , G. A. 2007. "Los Libros Blancos en Centro América: ¿Un paso para consolidar medidas de confianza?," Security and Defense Studies Review, 7(3): 370-395.
    Painchaud, F. and T. T. Stučka. 2011. "Stress testing in the Debt Sustainability Framework (DSF) for Low-Income Countries." Retrieved from the World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEBTDEPT/Resources/468980-1172763902832/StressTestingDSF.pdf.
    Paniza, U. 2008. "Domestic and External Public Debt in Developing Countries," UNCTAD Discuccion Papers(188): 1-26.
    Pérez García, R. 2012. "Contrataciones del sector público, un tema de Interés nacional." Retrieved from IEEP. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/index.php/descargas/?did=234.
    Piron , L.-H. and T. O’Neil 2005. "Integrating Human Rights into Development: A synthesis of donor approaches and experiences." Retrieved from Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved from http://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/4404.pdf.
    Primerisima, R. l. 2009. "Fiscalía no acusará a Chamorro Barrios, pero CINCO debe ser empresa privada." Retrieved from. Retrieved from http://www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/45910/fiscalia-no-acusara-a-chamorro-barrios-pero-cinco-debe-ser-empresa-privada.
    Primo Braga, C. A. and D. Dömeland. 2009. Debt Relief and Beyond: Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
    Primo Braga, C. A. and G. A. Vincelette. 2011. Sovereign Debt and the Financial Crisis Will This Time Be Different? Washington D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank.
    Quintana Flores, M. 2012. "Apuntes sobre la educación en Nicaragua." Retreived from IEEP. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/index.php/descargas/?did=237.
    Quirós Víguez, A. 2012. "El derecho a la salud en Nicaragua." Retrieved from IEEP.
    Raseel, G. R. 2005. "Public Debt and Stability," in Handbook of Public Sector Economics, Boca Raton: Taylor and Francis Group.
    Reinhart, C. M., V. R. Reinhart, and K. S. Rogoff. 2012. "Debt Overhangs: Past and Present," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper(18015): 1-29.
    Reinhart, C. M., K. S. Rogoff, and M. A. Savastano. 2003a. "Debt Intolerance," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper(9908).
    Reinhart, C. M., K. S. Rogoff, and M. A. Savastano. 2003b. "Debt Intolerance," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper(9908): 1-70.
    Riegner, M. 2012. "Measuring the Good Governance State A Legal Reconstruction of the World Bank’s “Country Policy and Institutional Assessment”," IRPA Working Paper: 1-32.
    Rose, H. J. 2010. "Mercados de Tierras y Seguridad en su Tenencia." Retrieved from FUNIDES. Retrieved from http://www.funides.com/documentos/estudios_especiales/mercados_de_tierra_y_seguridad_en_su_tenencia/mercados_de_tierra_y_seguridad_en_su_tenencia.pdf.
    Roubini, N. 1988. "Current account and budget deficits in an intertemporal model of consumption and taxation smoothing. A solution to the "feldstein-horioka puzzle"?," National Bureau of Economic Research: 1-54.
    Roubini, N. and B. Setser. 2004. "The US as a Net Debtor: The Sustainability of External Imbalances." Retrieved from New York University Stern School of Business Retrieved from http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~nroubini/papers/Roubini-Setser-US-External-Imbalances.pdf.
    Samli, A. C. 2011. Infrastructuring The Key to Achieving Economic Growth, Productivity, and Quality of Life. London: Springer.
    Sandino, A. 2011. "Contribución de la inversión pública al crecimiento económico." Retrieved From IEEP.
    Sandino, A. 2014. "Espacio fiscal y gasto en pobreza: Una revisión desde los informes de liquidación presupuestaria." Retrieved from Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Retrieved from http://www.ieepp.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2014/09/FiscoyGasto.pdf.
    Santiso, C. 2001. "Good Governance and Aid Effectiveness: The World Bank and Conditionality," Georgetown Public Policy Revie, 7(1): 1-22.
    Savvides, A. 1992. "Investment Slowdown in Developing Countries During the 1980s: Debt Overhang or Foreign Capital inflows?," Kyklos, 45(3): 363-378.
    Schmitz, H. P. 2012. "A Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) in Practice: Evaluating NGO Development Efforts," Polity, 44(4): 523-541.
    SCJ. 2010. "Constitutional Court Sentence No. 5." Retrieved from Supreme Court Justice of Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.poderjudicial.gob.ni/pjupload/rp/pdf/sentencia_5_cjs_en.pdf.
    Sen , A. 1976. "An Ordinal Approach to Measurement," Econometrica, 44(2): 219-231.
    Sen, A. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sen, A. 2002. Rationality as Freedom. Massachusets: The Selknap of Harvard University Press.
    Solberg, R. L. 1992. Country-Risk Analysis: A handbook. New York: Routledge.
    Sosa, S., E. Tsounta, and H. S. Kim. 2013. "Is the Growth Momentum in Latin America Sustainable?," IMF Working Paper(WP/13/109): 1-22.
    Spalding, R. J. 2012. "Business and State Relations in Post-Revolutionary Nicaragua: Elite Realignment and the New Strategy of Collaboration." Retrieved from The American University. Retrieved from http://www.american.edu/clals/upload/Spalding_Business_and_State_in_Nicaragua.pdf.
    Spratt, S. 2007. External Debt and the Millennium Development Goals: A New Sustainable Framework. Tertiary New York: United Nationa.
    Staten, C. L. 2010. The history of Nicaragua. California: Greenwood.
    Stiglitz, J. 2002. Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.
    Stroh, L. K., J. M. Brett, J. P. Baumann, and A. H. Reilly. 1996. "Agency Theory and Variable Pay Compensation Strategies," The Academy of Management Journal, 39(3): 751-767.
    Summit, G. 1996. "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Multilateral Institutions for the Benefit of Development." Retreived from University of Toronto Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.library.utoronto.ca/g7/summit/1996lyon/communique.html#eco5.
    Summit, G. 1999. "Report of G7 Finance Ministers on the Köln Debt Initiative to the Köln Economic Summit." Retrieved from University of Toronto Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/finance/fm061899.htm.
    Summit, G. 2005. "G8 Summit." Retrieved from the University of Toronto. Retrieved from http://www.g8.utoronto.ca/summit/2005gleneagles/summary.html.
    Szostak, R. 2009. The Causes of Economic Growth: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Berling, Germany: Springer.
    Tabellini, G. 1991. "The Politics of Intergenerational Redistribution," Journal of Political Economy: 335-357.
    TANA. 2014. "Human Rights Based Approach: Background Paper." Retrieved from TANA. Retrieved from http://tanacopenhagen.com/uploads/Other%20documents/20140804_HRBA_%20version-4.pdf.
    Telenica.com. 2015. "Daniel Ortega habría adquirido canal de televisión más tradicional de Nicaragua; ahora tendría cuatro canales." Retrieved from Telenica.com. Retrieved from http://local.teletica.451.com/Noticias/81693-Daniel-Ortega-habria-adquirido-canal-de-television-mas-tradicional-de-Nicaragua-ahora-tendria-cuatro-canales.note.aspx.
    Temple, J. and P. A. Johnson. 1998. "Social Capability and Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(3): 965-990.
    Tungodden, B. 2001. "A balanced view of development as freedom." Retrieved from Chr. Michelsen Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cmi.no/publications/file/953-a-balanced-view-of-development-as-freedom.
    UN-ECLAC. 1999. "Finding solutions to the debt problems of developing countries." Retrieved from United Nations Economic Comission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from http://www.cepal.org/publicaciones/xml/6/4306/lcl1230i.pdf.
    UN-OHCHR. 2006. "Frequently Asked Questions on Human Rights Based Approach to Development." Retrieved from the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FAQen.pdf.
    UN. 1986. "Declaration of the Right to Development." Retrieved from the UN. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/41/a41r128.htm.
    UN. 1991. The Realization of economic, social and cultural rights - Second progress report by the Special Rapporteur. Tertiary, (E/CN.4/Sub.2/1991/17). United Nations Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities.
    UN. 1992. The Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Final report submitted by Mr. Danilo Türk, Special Rapporteur. Tertiary, (E/CN.4/Sub.2/1992/16). UN Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities.
    UN. 1994. "Effects on the full enjoyment of human rights of the economic adjustment policies arising from foreign debt and, in particular, on the implementation of the Declaration on the Right to Development." Retrieved from OHCHR. Retrieved from http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/CHR/resolutions/E-CN_4-RES-1994-11.doc.
    UN. 1995. The Realization of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Tertiary, (E/CN.4/Sub.2/1995/10). United Nations.
    UN. 1997a. Report of the open-ended working group on structural adjustment programmes and economic, social and cultural rights on its first session. Tertiary, (E/CN.4/1997/20). UN Economic and Social Council.
    UN. 1999. Effects of structural adjustment policies on the full enjoyment of human rights, Report by the Independent Expert, Mr. Fantu Cheru, submitted in accordance with Commission decisions 1998/102 and 1997/103. Tertiary, (E/CN.4/1999/50). United Nations Commision on Human Rights.
    UN. 2000. United Nations Millennium Declaration. Tertiary, (A/RES/55/2). New York: United Nations.
    UN. 2003. "Effects of structural adjustment policies and foreign debt on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights." Retrieved from the UN Human Rights Council. Retrieved from https://www.google.com.tw/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCIQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fap.ohchr.org%2Fdocuments%2FE%2FCHR%2Fresolutions%2FE-CN_4-RES-2003-21.doc&ei=rkFtVZXJEYzV8gXtqYKwCg&usg=AFQjCNGF3qkXs10Fy5C-h9FOF_OcCH_cTg&sig.
    UN. 2005. 2005 World Summit Outcome. Tertiary, (A/RES/60/1). New York: United Nations.
    UN. 2008. "Export competitiveness and development in LDCs: policies, issues and priorities for least developed countries for action during and beyond UNCTAD XII." Retrieved of United Nations. Retrieved from http://unctad.org/en/Docs/aldc20081_en.pdf.
    UN. 2009. Compendium on Debt Sustainability and Development. New York: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    UN. 2011. Guiding principles on foreign debt and human rights. Tertiary, (A/HRC/20/23). Washington D.C.: Human Rights Council.
    UN. 2014a. "Report of the independent expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights, Cephas Lumina." Retrieved from United Nations Human Rights Council. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A-HRC-25-50.doc.
    UN. 2014b. Report of the Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights, Cephas Lumina: Mission to Greece. Tertiary, (A/HRC/25/50/Add.1). New York: United Nations.
    UN. 2015. "Good Governance and Human Rights." Retrieved from the United Nations Human Rights Council. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Development/GoodGovernance/Pages/GoodGovernanceIndex.aspx.
    UNCTAD. 1983. "Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of State Property, Archives and Debts." Retrieved from United Nations. Retrieved from http://legal.un.org/ilc/texts/instruments/english/conventions/3_3_1983.pdf.
    UNCTADSTAT. 2015. "Concentration and diversification indices of merchandise exports and imports by country, annual, 1995-2013." Retrieved from United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Retrieved from http://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/TableViewer/tableView.aspx.
    UNDP. 2014. Human Development Report 2014. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
    UNHRC. 2014. Human Rights Coouncil. In Human Rights Council.
    UNIDO. 2005. Economic Development and UN Reform: Towards a Common Agenda for Action. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
    UNPF. 2014. "Informe de Progreso Educativo Nicaragua." Retrieved from United Nations Population Fund Nicaragua. Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org.ni/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Informe-Nic-2014.pdf.
    Uvin, P. 2004. Human Rights and Development. Bloomfield, United States of America: Kumarian Press.
    Vargas, O.-R. 2011. Crisis alimentaria mundial y sus repercusiones en Nicaragua. Madrid, España: CeALCI- Fundación Carolina.
    Vargas, O.-R. 2014. Nicaragua cambia, todo cambia. Managua: ASDI.
    Velásquez Pereira, J. L. 2011. "Institucionalidad para el desarrollo: una visión de Nicaragua desde la economía política." Retrieved from Fundación Nicaragüense para el Desarrollo Económico y Social. Retrieved from http://funides.com/documentos/estudios_especiales/institucionalidad_para_el_desarrollo/institucionalidad_para_el_desarrollo_una_vision_de_nicaragua_desde_la_economia_politica.pdf.
    Wagner, R. E. 1976. "Revenue Structure, Fiscal Ilussion and Budgetary C," Public Choice, 25(1): 45-61.
    WB-OECD. 2013. Integrating Human Rights into Development: Donor Approaches, Experiences, and Challenges. Washington D.C.: World Bank and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
    WB. 1994. World Debt Tables 1994-1995: Volume One Analysis and Summary Tables. 2 vols. Vol. 1. Washington D.C., United States of America: The World Bank.
    WB. 1998. "Development and human rights: the role of the World Bank." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/BRAZILINPOREXTN/Resources/3817166-1185895645304/4044168-1186409169154/08DHR.pdf.
    WB. 2001. "World Development Report 2000/2001 : Attacking Poverty." Retrieved From The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/11856.
    WB. 2004. "Nicaragua - Development Policy Review : Sustaining Broad-Based Growth." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/14567.
    WB. 2006. "How to do a Debt Sustainability Analysis for Low-Income Countries." Retrieved from the World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEBTDEPT/Resources/DSAGUIDE_EXT200610.pdf.
    WB. 2008a. "Nicaragua Poverty Assessment Volume 1: Main Report." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/8097.
    WB. 2008b. "Nicaragua: Institutional and Governance Review." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/06/19/000334955_20080619030713/Rendered/PDF/398170ESW0P1011sclosed0June01702008.pdf.
    WB. 2009. "Nicaragua Country Note on Climate Change Aspects in Agriculture." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/9479/537960BRI0Clim10Box345626B01PUBLIC1.pdf?sequence=1.
    WB. 2010a. Enterprise Surveys: Nicaragua Country Profile. Tertiary Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
    WB. 2012a. "Better Jobs in Nicaragua: The Role of Human Capital." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/10/01/000425962_20121001154357/Rendered/PDF/729230ESW0Whit0er0Jobs0in0Nicaragua.pdf.
    WB. 2012b. "Logistics in Central America: The Path to Competitiveness." Retrieved From the The World Bank. Retrieved from http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/02/05/000333037_20130205101024/Rendered/PDF/750980WP0Logis00Box374299B00PUBLIC0.pdf.
    WB. 2013a. "Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Adaptation in the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Nicaragua." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/16586.
    WB. 2013b. "CPIA 2013 Criteria." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROJECTS/Resources/40940-1244163232994/6180403-1372096800800/CPIAcriteria2013.pdf.
    WB. 2013c. "Environmental Health in Nicaragua : Addressing Key Environmental Challenges." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/16588.
    WB. 2013d. World Development Report 2013: Jobs. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
    WB. 2014. World Development Indicators (WDI). In World Development Indicators (WDI).
    WB. 2015a. "Doing Business Country Profile." Retrieved from The World Bank Doing Business. Retrieved from http://www.doingbusiness.org/Custom-Query/nicaragua.
    WB. 2015b. "Education Statistics - All Indicators." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/variableselection/selectvariables.aspx?source=education-statistics-~-all-indicators.
    WB. 2015c. "Exporter Dynamics Database: Country-Year." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/exporter-dynamics-database.
    WB. 2015d. "Health Nutrition and Population Statistics." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/health-nutrition-and-population-statistics.
    WB. 2015e. "Nicaragua Doing Business 2015: Going Beyond Efficiency." Retrieved from The World Bank Doing Business. Retrieved from http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/~/media/giawb/doing%20business/documents/profiles/country/NIC.pdf?ver=2.
    WB. 2015f. World Development Indicators. In World Development Indicators (WDI).
    WB. 2015g. "Worldwide Governance Indicators." Retrieved from The World Bank. Retrieved from http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.aspx#reports.
    WB, I. a. 2010b. Human rights indicators in development : an introduction. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
    Wiarda, H. J. and H. Collins. 2011. "Constitutional Coups? Military Intervention in Latin America," Security and Defense Studies Review, 12(1 and 2): 189-198.
    Woo, J. 2006. The Political Economy of Fiscal Policy: Public Deficits, Volatility and Growth. New York: Springer.
    Wyplosz, C. 2007. "Debt Sustainability Assessment: The IMF Approach and Alternatives," HEI Working Paper(03): 1-35.
    Wyplosz, C. 2012. "Debt Sustainability Assessment: Mission Impossible," Review of Economics and Institutions, 2(3): Article 1.
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際研究英語碩士學位學程 (IMPIS)
    102862018
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0102862018
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文

    文件中的檔案:

    檔案 大小格式瀏覽次數
    201801.pdf1169KbAdobe PDF347檢視/開啟


    在政大典藏中所有的資料項目都受到原著作權保護.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - 回饋