Mapping Humanitarian Diplomacy in Small and Medium Size States: Niche Cases in Public Diplomacy
Chen, Mi Lan
William C. Vocke
Chen, Mi Lan
small and medium size countries
|上傳時間: ||2014-12-01 14:29:06 (UTC+8)|
Public diplomacy is not a new phenomenon in the history, yet with the changing features in the 21st century, such as the rise of the non-state actors and the technology advancement, the strategies and practices of public diplomacy have also been adjusted and modified. For small and middle size states that are constrained by power, politics, or geographic location, the changing environment has brought them both challenges and opportunities. They are able to develop diplomatic strategies beyond these hindrances through concentrating resources in specific areas that best able to increase the influence and visibility on the global stage. In this regard, humanitarian diplomacy is one of the niches that small and middle size states adopt to carry out their foreign policy goals, while generating awareness and providing assistance for areas suffering from severe humanitarian conditions and political conflicts. To further the study and to shed light on how small and middle size countries adopt humanitarian diplomacy as their diplomatic niches, the three cases, Norway, Turkey, and Taiwan, are selected and compared in terms of background, strategies, and practices. The comparison indicates that different countries develop their diplomatic strategies and practices based on state’s characteristics and existing resources. However, under the notion of public diplomacy, there are still several essential requirements needs to be examined in order to “make each punch above its weight.”
Bélanger, Louis, and Gordon Mace. "Middle Powers and Regionalism in the Americas: The Cases of Argentina and Mexico." Chap. 9 In Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers after the Cold War, edited by Andrew F. Cooper: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1997.
Baldwin, David A. Economic Statecraft. New Jersey (USA): Princeton University Press, 1985.
Blau, Peter M. Exchange and Power in Scoial Life. New Brunswick (USA)
London (UK): Transaction Publishers, 1986. 13.
Carr, E.H. The Twenty Years' Crisis 1919-1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1983.
Cooper, Andrew F. Niche Diplomacy: Middle Powers after the Cold War. New York: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1997.
Cooper, Andrew F., Richard A. Higgott, and Kim Richard Nossal. Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order. Vancouver: UBC Press, 1993.
Egeland, Jan. Impotent Superpower-Potent Small State: Potentials and Limitations of Human Rights Objectives in the Foreign Policies of the United States and Norway. Norway: Norwegian University Press, 1988.
Evans, Gareth, and Bruce Grant. Australia's Foreign Relations in the World of the 1990s. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press 1991.
Grunig, James E. and Fred C. Repper. "Strategic Management, Publics and Issues." In Excellence in Public Relations and Communication, edited by James E. Grunig, 117-57: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1992.
Hain, Peter. The End of Foreign Policy? British Interests, Global Linkages and Natural Limits. Great Britain: Plymbridge Distributors Ltd., 2001.
Harroff-Tavel, Marion. The Humanitarian Diplomacy of the International Committee of the Red Cross. African Yearbook on International Humanitarian Law. Western Cape: JUTA Law, 2006.
Henrikson, Alan K. "Niche Diplomacy in the World Public Arena: The Global "Corners" of Canada and Norway." In The New Public Diplomacy, edited by Jan Melissen, 67-87: Palgrave Macillan, 2005.
Hocking, Brian. "Rethinking the "New" Public Diplomacy." Chap. 2 In The New Public Diplomacy, edited by Jan Melissen, 28-46: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Hugh, William A. "The Case for Soft Power." Chap. 1 In Toward a New Public Diplomacy: Redirecting U.S. Foreign Policy, edited by Philip Seib, 3-22: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.
Leonard, Mark, Catherine Stead, and Conrad Smewing. Public Diplomacy. Public Diplomacy. The Foreign Policy Centre, 2002.
Melissen, Jan "The New Public Diplomacy: Between Theory and Practice." Chap. 1 In The New Public Diplomacy, edited by Jan Melissen, 3-27: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Minear, Larry. "The Carft of Humanitarian Diplomacy." Chap. 1 In Humanitarian Diplomacy, edited by Larry Minear and Hazel Smith, 7-36: United Nations University Press, 2007.
Morgenthau, Hans, Kenneth Thompson, and David Clinton. Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 7 ed.: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
Moyo, Dambisa. Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is Another Way for Africa. Penguin, 2010.
Nye, Joseph S. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. Public Affairs, 2004.
Ozkececi-Taner, Binnur. "Turkish Foreign Policy: Bridge, Buffer, Barrier." In Foreign Policy in Comparative Perspective Domestic and International Influences on State Behavior, edited by R. K. Beasley, J. Kaarbo, J. S. Lantis and M. T. Snarr, 183-203. London: SAGE, 2012.
Riddell, R.G. "The Canadian Doctrine of Middle Power." In Empire and Nations... edited by H. L. Dyck and H. P. Krosby, 138. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969.
Tvedt, T. Utviklingshjelp, Utenrikspolitikk Og Makt: Den Norske Modellen. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2009.
Van Evera, Stephen. Guide to Methods for Students of Political Science New York: Cornell University Press, 1997.
Van Ham, Peter. "Power, Public Diplomacy, and the Pax Americana." In The New Public Diplomacy, edited by Jan Melissen, 47-66: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Wood, Bernard. The Middle Powers and the General Interest. Ottawa: The North-South Institute, 1988.
Zaharna, R.S. "Mapping out a Spectrum of Public Diplomacy Initiative: Imformation and Relational Communication Frameworks." Chap. 10 In Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy, edited by Nancy Snow and Philip M. Taylor, 86-100. The UK: Routledge, 2009.
Arsenault, Amelia. "The End of the War on Terror and the Future of Us Public " E-International Relations, http://www.e-ir.info/2013/07/02/the-end-of-the-war-on-terror-and-the-future-of-us-public-diplomacy/.
Ataman, Muhittin. "The Impact of Non-State Actors on World Politics: A Challenge to Nation-States." Turkish Journal of International Relations 2, no. 1 (2003).
Bátora, Josef "Public Diplomacy in Small and Medium-Size States: Norway and Canada." Clingendael Discussion Papers in Diplomacy, http://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/20050300_cli_paper_dip_issue97.pdf.
Baxter, Pamela , and Susan Jack. "Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers." The Qualitative Report 13, no. 4 (December 4 2008): 544-99.
Chapnick, Adam. "The Middle Power." Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 7, no. 2 (1999): 73-82.
Cowan, Geoffrey, and Amelia Arsenault. "Moving from Monologue to Dialogue to Collaboration: The Three Layers of Public Diplomacy." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Socail Science 616 (March 2008): 10-30.
Davutoglu, Ahmet. "Turkey's Humanitarian Diplomacy: Objective, Challenges and Prospects." Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity 41, no. 6 (22 November 2013): 865-70.
Ferguson, Niall. "Think Again: Power." Foreign Policy January/February (2003): 21.
Huang, Kwei-Bo "Taiwan's Public Diplomacy at a Time of Institutional Change." Brookings, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/05/10-taiwan-diplomacy-huang.
Jordaan, Eduard. "The Concept of a Middle Power in International Relations: Distinguishing between Emerging and Traditional Middle Powers." Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies 30, no. 1 (2003): 165-81.
Nye, Joseph S. "Public Diplomacy and Soft Power." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Socail Science 616, no. 1 (March 2008): 94-109.
Pigman, Geoffrey Allen and Anthony Does "Consuls for Hire: Private Actors, Public Diplomacy." Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 4 (2008): 85-96.
Rawnsley, Gary. "Selling Taiwan: Diplomacy and Propaganda." Issus & Studies 36, no. 3 (05/01 2000): 1-25.
Rockower, Paul S. "Projecting Taiwan: Taiwan's Public Diplomacy Outreach." Issus & Studies 47, no. 1 (March 2011): 107-52.
Signitzer, Benno H. and Timothy Coombs. "Public Relations and Public Diplomacy: Conceptual Covergences." Public Relations Review 18, no. 2 (Summer 1992): 137-47.
Simmons, P.J. "Learning to Live with NGOs." Foreign Policy Fall 98, no. 112 (1998): 82.
Vickers, Rhiannon "The New Public Diplomacy: Britain and Canada Compared." The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 6, no. 2 (2004): 182-94.
Welch, David. "Powers of Persuasion." History Today 49, no. 8 (1999): 6-24.
Zatepilina, Olga. "Non-State Ambassadors: Ngos'contribution to America's Public Diplomacy." Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 5 (2009): 156-68.
Cedric de Coning, Helge Lurås, Niels Nagelhus Schia, and Ståle Ulriksen. "Norway's Whole-to-Government Appraoch and Its Engagement with Afghanistan." In Security in Practice: The Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 2009.
Davutoglu, Ahmet. "Principles of Turkish Foreign Policy and Regional Political Structuring." In SAM Vision Paper. Ankara: International Policy and leadership Institute, 2012.
ICDF, International Cooperation and Development Fund. "International Cooperation and Development Fund 2012 Annual Report." International Cooperation and Development Fund, 2012.
Leonard, M. and A. Small. "Norweigian Public Diplomacy." London: The Foreign Policy Center, 2003.
MFA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Humanitarian Efforts." http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/ud/selected-topics/humanitarian-efforts.html?id=434479.
———. "Norway's Image Abroad - a Shared Responsibility." http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/ud/selected-topics/public-diplomacy-and-cultural-cooperatio/image_abroad.html?id=708753.
MOFA. "Partnership for Progress and Sustainable Development: White Paper on Foreign Aid Policy." edited by Republic of China (Taiwan) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2009.
NORAD, The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. "Norad's Strategy Towards 2015: Results in the Fight against Poverty." 2011.
———. "Facts About Norad." http://www.norad.no/en/front-page.
Office of the President. "施政願景." Office of the President, Republic of China (Taiwan), http://www.president.gov.tw/Default.aspx?tabid=1070.
TaiwanNGO, Department of NGO international Affairs. "Achievements of Taiwanese Ngos in the International Arena: In Celebration of the Republic of China (Taiwan) Centennial." http://www.taiwanngo.tw/files/13-1000-20213.php?Lang=en.
———. Department of NGO international Affairs. "Annual budget of Department of NGO International Affairs." 2010. http://126.96.36.199/DOC/4695/PLAN_40_20100301110507950.htm
The Reut Institute, "Oslo Process." In Initiatives and Agreements. http://reut-institute.org/Publication.aspx?PublicationId=542
UNDP, United Nations Development Programme. "Summary Human Development Report." 2013.
Wood, Bernard, Dorte Kabell, Nansozi Muwanga, and Francisco Sagasti. "Evaluation of the Implementation of the Paris Declaration." Minister of Foreign Affairs of Denmark: Kabell Kounsulting ApS, 2008.
Bruni, Frank. "A Nation That Exports Oil, Herring and Peace." The New York Times, December 21 2002.
Lee, Shu-hua. "Humanitarian Aid Integrates Taiwan into World Community." CNA, 2012.
TaiwanEmbassy. "駐美國代表金溥聰大使代表中華民國外交部與「泛美發展基金會」簽署「台灣與泛美發展基金會災害援助與重建基金」合作計畫." news release, 12/12, 2012, http://www.taiwanembassy.org/US/ct.asp?xItem=335937&ctNode=2264&mp=11.
Ardaiolo, Michael. "Are Confucius Institutes Chinese Public Diplomacy Tools or Trojan Horse?" Exchange Journal, http://www.exchangediplomacy.com/are-confucius-institutes-chinese-public-diplomacy-tools-or-trojan-horses.
Cevik, Senem. "An Emerging Actor in Humanitarian Diplomacy." CPD, USC Centter on Public Diplomacy, http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/an_emerging_actor_in_humanitarian_diplomacy.
———. "Turkey's Humanitarian Assistance: The Fourth Largest Donor State." USC Center on Public Diplomacy, http://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/blog/turkey%E2%80%99s-humanitarian-assistance-fourth-largest-donor-state.
Evans, Gareth. "No Power? No Influence? Australia's Middle Power Diplomacy in the Asian Century." http://www.gevans.org/speeches/speech472.html.
Graham, Edward J. "Confucius Institutes Threaten Academic Freedom." American Association of University Professors, http://www.aaup.org/article/confucius-institutes-threaten-academic-freedom#.VCgB5_mSxlw.
Melissen, Jan. "Public Diplomacy in a Changing World." The East Asia Institute (2012). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bmw22cNqVhc
Ornstein, Tara. "The Role of New Public Diplomacy in Global Tuberculosis Control." In CPD Blog: USC Center on Public Diplomacy.
Toje, Asle. "Government Funded Non Governmental Organization: Civil Society Aid Organizations and Donor Governments, the Case of Norway." http://asletoje.com/pdf_gallery/102.pdf
Tufts Fletcher School. "What Is Public Diplomacy." http://fletcher.tufts.edu/Murrow/Diplomacy_truncated.
Binder, Andrea, and Ceyda Erten. "From Dwarf to Giant-Turkey's Contemporary Humanitarian Assistance." In World Conference on Humanitarian Studies: Human Security-Humanitarian Perspecive. Istanbul: Global Public Policy Institute 2013.
La Porte, Theresa. "The Legitimacy and Effectivness of Non-State Actors and the Public Diplomacy Concept." In ISA Convention. San Diego, 2012.
Global Humanitarian Assistance. "Country Profile: Turkey." 2011.
IMF. "World Economic Outlook Database." International Monetary Fund, 2014.