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    Title: 著作權作為創作誘因?:以台灣獨立音樂人為對象的實證研究
    Copyright as an Incentive of Creation?: An Empirical Study of Independent Musicians in Taiwan
    Authors: 戴雅彣
    Contributors: 李治安
    戴雅彣
    Keywords: 著作權
    誘因理論
    創作誘因
    著作權立法政策
    獨立音樂
    赫茲伯格雙因子理論
    copyright
    the incentive theory
    incentives of creation
    copyright policy
    independent music
    Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-10-01 13:46:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 傳統著作權誘因理論係以市場失靈的角度切入論述著作權保護之必要性。該理論存在三大假設:第一,著作市場在缺乏著作權制度管制下,會發生外部性和公共財市場失靈現象,創作者會缺乏生產社會最適產量的誘因,而發生「過低生產」之情形;第二,政府應設計介入市場之機制,而賦予創作者著作權為最有效率、成本最低之市場介入手段;第三,著作權保護可以提供著作權人創作誘因。近年來,出現不少反對著作權過度擴張保護的聲音,除了擔憂公眾領域和利用人權益遭著作權外溢現象侵襲,部分論者也開始質疑誘因理論的假設前提。
    本研究希望透過實證研究,探詢誘因理論之三大假設前提是否得一體適用於所有創作環境中。本研究選擇以台灣獨立音樂人為研究對象,蓋著作權為音樂產業三大核心價值之一,而獨立音樂作為音樂產業的重要創意動能,對於著作權制度的反饋尤其重要。本研究以心理學動機和誘因理論為基礎,透過訪談台灣獨立音樂人之方式,探討著作權是否確為保障創作誘因之必要條件。訪談設計上,將獨立音樂人的創作活動切割成「創意源頭」、「創作過程」、「創作產出」三個時期,並將各時期的行為切割觀察,探討各階段的創作動機及誘因。
      研究結果顯示,傳統誘因理論強調的經濟誘因保障,在獨立音樂創作者的創作活動中,較不具有重要性。首先,許多受訪者對於音樂產品的外部性和公共財特性展現不在意之態度,故音樂消費市場的搭便車現象不會發生如誘因理論論者主張之外部性和公共財之市場失靈現象。其次,訪談結果顯示獨立音樂人的創作活動或多或少受先前創作影響,故著作權的絕對保護可能減少音樂人接觸其他音樂作品的機會,而不利於初起步的音樂人累積創作實力。最後,分析創意活動三階段的創作誘因可以發現,不論在「創意源頭」、「創作過程」或「創作產出」階段,受訪之獨立音樂人的創作誘因多與著作財產權無涉,只有少數誘因與著作人格權的保護有關。訪談結果亦顯示獨立音樂人對特定著作權保護(如「姓名表示權」)的態度較其他著作權保護更為重視,而著作財產權所提供的經濟誘因,則較近似於赫茲伯格理論中的「保健因子」角色,並非能真正激勵創作的要素。
    Traditional incentive theory of copyright is based on the theory of market failure. The incentive theory has three premises about the world of creation: First, without any intervention, an externality and market failure of public goods shall occur, making potential inventors lack incentives to create a socially optimal quantity of works, leading to an undersupply of creative works. Second, an intervention is therefore required, and copyright protection is the most efficient measures with low cost. Third, copyright protection, in this regard, provide incentives for inventors to create. Recently, not only have there been more concerns about the over expansion of copyright protections and the following results of erosion of public domain and users’ interests, questions have also been raised with respect to the premises of the incentive theory.

    This study is aimed at providing insights into the three premises of the incentive theory through empirical research. To start with, independent musicians in Taiwan were chosen as the research target in that copyright is one of the most essential value of the music industry and thus independent music, being the thriving power of the music industry, is crucial for the inspection of the current copyright regime. This study examine the premises by interviewing independent musicians in Taiwan and analyzing the results based on theories of motivation in psychology. This study further divides the creating process into three periods— the origins of creativity, the creating process and the output—and observe motivations period by period.

    The result indicates that monetary incentive, which is a great emphasis in the traditional incentive theory, is not as important as expected in the creative process of the independent musicians in Taiwan. First of all, many respondents hold indifferent attitudes towards the externalities and characteristics of public goods that occurred in the music market, thus the phenomenon of free-riders may not contribute to market failure. Second of all, the result shows that almost all created activities were more or less affected by prior works. An absolute protection of copyright is very likely to deprive musicians of their accesses to other musical works, impeding the cumulative process of creativity. Last and most importantly, the incentives for independent musicians to create, be that during the origins of creativity, the creating process or the output period, have little to do with copyright protection. Only a few incentives are associated with moral rights. The result also shows that independent musicians value certain moral rights, such as right of attribution, more than other rights protected by copyright law. As for the economic rights under current copyright law, the result indicates that they appear more of “hygiene factors,” as defined in Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, than incentives of creation in the process of creativity.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理與智慧財產研究所
    100361014
    102
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100361014
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理與智慧財產研究所] 學位論文

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