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    题名: 16至20個月嬰幼兒對意圖線索的理解
    其它题名: 16- to 20-Month-Old Understanding of Others' Intentional Cues
    作者: 王瑾婷
    Wang,Chin-Ting
    姜忠信
    Chiang,Chung-Hsin
    贡献者: 心理系
    关键词: 意圖理解;語音線索;情緒線索;嬰幼兒
    intentional understanding;vocal cues;emotional cues;toddlers
    日期: 2011.06
    上传时间: 2014-07-22 11:44:52 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究探討16個月及20個月大的嬰幼兒,能否依語音和表情線索,來區辨他人行為的意圖。首先,透過半結構化親子互動遊戲,引發家長發出語音,企圖找出可與"there"及"woops"對應之中文的意圖性及意外性語音,前導實驗中以18個月與24個月的嬰幼兒及其家長為對象,結果發現,使用次數較多的是意圖性語音「ㄛ」和意外性語音「(特殊字元略)」。實驗一重製姜忠信與張閔翔(2008)的實驗,修正語音及降低作業難度。結果發現,20個月大的嬰幼兒大體上能依語音及表情線索找到意圖目標物,16個月的嬰幼兒則否,兩年齡組嬰幼兒在作答上,皆無明顯的左右偏好。實驗二再修正實驗一,移除打開盒蓋的動作來降低作業難度,另增加「最終反應」的計分。結果發現:20個月大的嬰幼兒能理解語音及表情的意圖線索,亦發現最終反應顯著高於第一反應,說明此月齡的嬰幼兒需較長的時間,才能做出正確反應。然而實驗二嬰幼兒的表現與實驗一20個月大的嬰幼兒無異,說明了盒蓋並非造成作業難度較高的主因。由本研究結果,推論20個月大的嬰幼兒,能夠理解他人語音及表情的意圖線索。
    Recent literature has found that young children before the age of 2 can use behavioral cues to detect others' intentions. The present study used vocal and facial expression cues to investigate intentional ability in 16- to 20-monthold children. A pilot study looked at the Mandarin vocals that are synonymous with "there" and "woops" in English. In a semi-structured parent-and-child interaction context, 18- and 24-month-old children played with their parents. The parents' vocals in intentional and accidental conditions were recorded. Results showed that the intentional vocal "Ah!" and accidental vocal "Wa!" were most frequently used. In Study 1, we replicated the referential intent task (Chiang & Chang, 2008), corrected the vocal cues, and reduced the task difficulty. The examiner provided vocal and facial expression cues to indicate which container contained the toy. Results showed that 20-month-old children could differentiate between the demonstrated intentional and accidental cues. The 16-month-old children did not pass the task. The preference to choose the right or left side was not significant in either age group. Study 2 removed the lid of containers to reduce task difficulty, coding children's first response and last response. Similarly, 20-month-old children passed the referential intent task. Performance on the last response was better than performance on the first response, and these children needed longer time to process information. However, the children in Study 2 did not perform better than those in Study 1. This result explained that the lid of the container did not decrease the task demand. In conclusion, 20-month-old children can understand others' intentional cues of vocal and facial expression. However, further studies are needed to explore the components of task loading and compare the data with that in Western culture.
    關聯: 中華心理學刊,53(2),149-166
    数据类型: article
    显示于类别:[心理學系] 期刊論文

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