威廉二世的德國亟欲成為世界強權，1897年強佔中國山東省的膠洲灣為保護區，並建立起集權的統治機構。德國將膠洲灣保護區視為在遠東展示其威望、科技和文化成就的主要地方，是帝國海軍展現其能力的場所。於是重大工程如港口和鐵路乃必備之物，不過都市規劃以及現代都市所需的各種設施，如自來水、地下排水道、診所和醫院等，也不可或缺。但是，膠澳總督府對建設青島市歐洲人區的積極態度在華人地區前突然消失，只採取防範傳染病的爆發的措施，並以規則和刑罰來規範華人。在建設膠澳保護區的特定目標下，膠澳總督府在衛生建設方面的措施清楚地展現出殖民體制的普遍性和特殊性。 Germany under William II was eager to become one of the superpowers in the world. In 1897, Germany occupied China’s Jiaozhou (Kiautschou) Bay, and established an imperial government to control this “Schutzgebiet”. Kiautschou became the showroom of Germany’s technology, cultural achievment and prestige in the international world. It was also the arena for the Royal Navy to display its strength. The harbor and railroad were thus constructed, as well as the water supply and sewerage systems, clinic and hospitals. However, all these facilities were primarily available to the Europeans in Kiautschou. As for the Chinese, the imperial government remained passive and inclined to adopt only preventive measures against outbreak of epidemic. On the other hand it also adopted new regulations and punishments to prevent the Chinese from any law-breaking behavior, as usual. The colonial government’s policies concerning hygienic facilities in Kiautschou not only exemplify its peculiarity, they also reflects the common attributes of colonial system.
國立政治大學歷史學報, 29, 127-159 The Journal of History, 29, 127-159