English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 11 |  Items with full text/Total items : 88613/118155 (75%)
Visitors : 23470923      Online Users : 215
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/61458


    Title: 專利仲介組織在台灣專利交易市場之研究
    Patent brokers in Taiwan's patent transaction market
    Authors: 羅育如
    Contributors: 溫肇東
    羅育如
    Keywords: 專利仲介組織
    專利仲介能耐
    專利交易不確定性
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-11-01 11:38:45 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 全世界專利交易蓬勃發展,而且每年都有不同的創新商業模式出現,其中專利仲介組織對於刺激競爭強度有顯著的影響。本研究運用交易成本理論以及知識基礎觀點作為理論觀點,探討專利仲介組織如何運用專利仲介能耐來解決專利交易不確定性的問題,最後協助買賣雙方完成專利交易。
    透過個案研究發現,專利仲介能耐可以調節程序不確定性以及實質不確定性對於專利成交的負向影響,但是,專利仲介能耐對於策略不確定性對於專利成交負向影響的調節效果較差。本研究認為可能的原因在於,要解決投機行為所造成的策略不確定性,交易成本理論認為應該加強買賣雙方質押,例如要求買方投入大量資源進行商品化,而知識基礎觀點認為應該建議社群,使得買賣雙方有共同學習的機會,例如:賣方參與買方後續研發工作,而透過本個案研究發現,如果專利仲介組織能夠協助買賣雙方透過以上的方式消除投機行為時,也就可以消除策略不確定性的影響,例如智點的案例就是買方投入大量的商品化資源,而智點也持續參與買方後續的研發工作,才會促使這項困難的專利商品化交易完成。反之,則無法減低策略不確定性的影響,而可能導致交易破局,。
    除此之外,本研究還發現專利利用型態不同會影響專利仲介組織運用專利仲介能耐的方法。
    本研究結果提供專利仲介組織省思自己的核心能耐是否符合專利仲介能耐,並透過了解專利交易不確定性的分類,這樣才能針對不同的不確定性,協助客戶擬定多樣化的專利策略。
    Reference: 王本耀. 2007. 智財服務業之價值活動與外部資源網路之研究. 國立交通大學科技管理研究所, 新竹.
    周延鵬. 2010. 專利數目的表象和真相, 聯合報.
    胡釗維. 2005. 鴻海八千億營收布局大解密. 商業周刊.
    莊正民, & 方世杰. 2013. 「組織內與組織間治理」的本質與策略意涵. 臺大管理論叢, 23(S1): 1-24.
    經濟部技術處. 2004. 全球技術交易市場之發展趨勢, 2004年產業技術白皮書.
    Akerlof, G. A. 1970. The Market for “Lemons”: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84: 488-500.
    Aldrich, H. E., & von Glinow, M. A. 1992. Business start-ups: the HRM imperative. In S. Birley, & I. C. MacMillan (Eds.), International Perspectives on Entrepreneurial Research: 233–253. New York: North-Holland.
    Argyres, N. S., & Zenger, T. R. 2012. Capabilities, transaction costs, and firm boundaries. Organization Science, 23(6): 1643-1657.
    Arora, A., Fosfuri, A., & Gambardella, A. 2001. Markets for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Strategy. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Arora, A., & Merges, R. P. 2004. Specialized supply firms, property rights and firm boundaries. Industrial and Corporate Change, 13: 451-475.
    Arrow, K. 1985. Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention. In K. Arrow (Ed.), Production and Capital. Cambridge: 104–119. MA: Belknap Press.
    Arthur, W. B. 2007. The Structure of Invention. Research Policy, 36: 274-287.
    Aspers, P. 2007. Theory, Reality, and Performativity in Markets. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 66: 379-398.
    Autio, E., Hameri, A. P., & Vuola, O. 2004. A framework of industrial knowledge spillovers in big-science centers. Research Policy, 33(1): 107-126.
    Bailey, J. P., & Bakos, Y. 1997. An Exploratory Study of the Emerging Role of Electronic Intermediaries. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 1(3): 7-20.
    Barney, J. B., & Hesterly, W. R. C., C. 1996. Organizational economics: Understanding the
    relationship between organizations and economic analysis. London, UK: Sage Publications.
    Beckert, J. 1996. What Is Sociological about Economic Sociology? Uncertainty and the Embeddedness
    of Economic Action. Theory and Society, 25: 803–840.
    Beckert, J. 1999. Agency, Entrepreneurs, and Institutional Change: The Role of Strategic Choice and Institutionalized Practices in Organizations. Organization Studies, 20: 777-799.
    Benassi, M., & Minin, A. D. 2009. Playing in between: patent brokers in markets for technology. R&D Management, 39(1): 68-86.
    Bessant, J., & Rush, H. 1995. Building bridges for innovation: the role of consultants in technology transfer. Research Policy, 24(1): 97-114.
    Beunza, D., & David, S. 2004. Tools of the Trade: The Socio-Technology of Arbitrage in a Wall Street Trading Room. Industrial and Corporate Change, 13: 369-400.
    Bidault, F., & Fischer, W. A. 1994. Technology transactions: networks over markets. R&D Management, 24(4): 373-386.
    Braun, D. 1993. Who Governs Intermediary Agencies? Principal-Agent Relations in Research Policy-Making. Journal of Public Policy, 13(02): 135-162.
    Brousseau, E., Chasserant, C., & Bessy, C. 2005. An International Survey on Technology Licensing Practices, The Diversity of Technology Licensing Agreements and Their Causes. Paris: Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique supported by LESI.
    Bryant, T. A., & Reenstra-Bryant, R. A. 1998. Technology brokers in the North American software industry: Getting the most out of mismatched dyads. International Journal of Technology Management, 16: 281-290.
    Burt, R. S. 2008. Information and structural holes: comment on Reagans and Zuckerman. Industrial and Corporate Change, 17(5): 953-969.
    Callon, M. 1994. Is Science a Public Good? Fifth Mullins Lecture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 23 March 1993. Science Technology Human Values, 19(4): 395-424.
    Cash, D. W. 2001. “In order to aid in diffusion useful and practical information”: agricultural extension and boundary organizations. Science, Technology and Human Values 26: 431–453.
    Chesbrough, H. 2006. Open business models : how to thrive in the new innovation landscape Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Chesbrough, H. W. 2003. Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Chi, T. 1994. Trading in strategic resource: Necessary conditions, transaction cost problems and choice of exchange structure. Strategic Management Journal, 15(4): 271-290.
    Clarkson, G. 2001. Avoiding Suboptimal Behaviour in Intellectual Asset Transactions: Economic and Organizational Perspectives on the Sale of Knowledge, Discussion Paper No. 330. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law School.
    Cohen, W. M., Nelson, R. R., & Walsh, J. P. 2000. Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not). National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series, No. 7552.
    Czarnitski, D., & Spielkamp, A. 2000. Business services in Germany: bridges for innovation, ZEW Discussion Paper No. 00-52. Mannheim: ZEW.
    David, P. A. 1998. Common Agency Contracting and the Emergence of "Open Science" Institutions. The American Economic Review, 88(2): 15-21.
    David, P. A., & Foray, D. 2001. An Introduction to the Economy of the Knowledge Society. Maastricht: University of Maastricht.
    Davis, J. L., & Harrison, S. S. 2001. Edison in the Boardroom: How Leading Companies Realize Value from Their Intellectual Assets. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Davis, L. 2006. Licensing Strategies of the Enterprising - But Vulnerable - “Intellectual Property” Vendors, DRUID Working Paper, Vol. No. 06-12. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School.
    Dequech, D. 2000. Fundamental Uncertainty and ambiguity. Eastern Economic
    JOURNAL OF BANKING & FINANCE, 26(41-60).
    Dequech, D. 2001. Bounded rationality, institutions and uncertainty. Journal of
    Economic Journal(35): 911-929.
    DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. 1991. The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationalty in Organizational Fields. In W. Powell, & P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis: 63–82. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Dosi, G., & Egidi, M. 1991. Substantive and Procedural Uncertainty. An Exploration of Economic Behaviours in Changing Environments. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 1: 145-168.
    Dyer, J. H. 1997. Effective interfirm collaboration:how firms minimize transaction costs and maximize transaction value. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7).
    Fligstein, N. 1996. Markets as Politics: A Political-Cultural Approach to Market Institutions. American Sociological Review, 61: 656-673.
    Fligstein, N. 2001. The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of Twenty-First-Century Capitalist
    Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Fligstein, N., & Dauter, L. 2007. The Sociology of Markets. Annual Review of Sociology, 33: 105-128.
    Foray, D. 2004. Economics of Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Granovetter, M. 1985. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91: 481-510.
    Granstrand, O. 2000. The Economics and Management of Intellectual Property: Towards Intellectual
    Capitalism. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
    Grant, R. M. 1996. Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17(7): 109-122.
    Guilhon, B., Attia, R., & Rizoulieres, R. 2004. Markets for Technology and Firms’ Strategies: The Case of the Semiconductor Industry. nternational Journal of Technology Management, 27: 123-142.
    Gupta, A., & Govindarajan, V. 2000. Knowledge Flow within Multinational Corporations. Strategic Management Journal, 21: 473-496.
    Guston, D. H. 1999. Stabilizing the boundary between US politics and science: the role of the Office of Technology Transfer as a boundary organization. Social Studies of Science 29: 87–111.
    Hall, B. H., & Ziedonis, R. H. 2001. The Patent Paradox Revisited: An Empirical Study of Patenting in the U.S. Semiconductor Industry 1979-1995. RAND Journal of Economics, 32: 101-128.
    Hardin, G. 1968. The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, 162(3859): 1243-1248.
    Hargadon, A., & Sutton, R. I. 1997. Technology brokering and innovation in a product development firm. Administrative Science Quarterly 42: 718–749.
    Hargadon, A. B. 1998. Firms as knowledge brokers: Lessons in pursuing continuous innovation. California Management Review(3): 209-227.
    Hayek, F. A. 1945. The Use of Knowledge in Society. The American Economic Review, 35: 519-530.
    Hislop, D. 2002. The client role in consultancy relations during the appropriation of technological innovations. Research Policy, 31(5): 657-671.
    Hoppe, H. C., & Ozdenoren, E. 2005. Intermediation in Innovation. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 23: 483-503.
    Howells, J. 1996. Tacit Knowledge, Innovation and Technology Transfer. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 8: 91-106.
    Howells, J. 1999. Research and Technology Outsourcing and Innovation Systems: an Exploratory Analysis. Industry & Innovation, 6(1): 111 - 129.
    Howells, J. 2006. Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation. Research Policy, 35(5): 715-728.
    Huston, L., & Sakkab, N. 2006. Connect and Develop: Inside Procter & Gamble's New Model for Innovation. Harvard Business Review, 48(3): 58-66.
    Jessop, B. 2007. Knowledge as a Fictitious Commodity: Insights and Limits of a Polanyian Perspective. In A. Bugra, & K. Agartan (Eds.), Reading Karl Polanyi for the Twenty-First Century: Market Economy as a Political Project: 115–133. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Kamiyama, S., Sheehan, J., & Martinez, C. 2006. Valuation and Exploitation of Intellectual Property. Paris: OECD.
    Knight, F. H. 2002. Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Washington, D.C.: Beard Books.
    Kogut, B., & Zander, U. 1992. Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization Science, 3(3): 383-397.
    Lavie, D. 2006. The competitive advantage of interconnected firms: An extension of the resource-based view. Academy of Management Review
    31: 638-658.
    Lee, D. 2008. Licensing strategies of the new “Intellectual property vendors”. California Management Review, 50(2): 6-30.
    Lei, D., Hitt, M. A., & Bettis, R. 1996. Dynamic Core Competencies Through Metalearning and Strategic Context. Journal of Management, forthcoming, 22(4): 549-569.
    Lichtenthaler, U. 2005. External commercialization of knowledge: Review and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(4): 231-255.
    Lichtenthaler, U., & Ernst, H. 2007a. Developing Reputation to Overcome the Imperfections in the Markets for Knowledge. Research Policy, 36(37-55).
    Lichtenthaler, U., & Ernst, H. 2007b. Intermediary Services in the Markets for Technology: Organizational Antecedents and Performance Consequences. Organization Studies, 29(7): 1003-1035.
    Lichtenthaler, U., & Ernst, H. 2008. Innovation intermediaries: why internet marketplaces for technology have not yet met the expectations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 17(1): 14-25.
    Lo, Y. J., Liu, W. Y., & Wen, C. T. The value added capability of innovation intermediaries in technology transaction markets. Paper presented at the PICMET 2010, Puket Island.
    Lynn, L. H., Mohan Reddy, N., & Aram, J. D. 1996. Linking technology and institutions: the innovation community framework. Research Policy, 25(1): 91-106.
    Möllering, G. 2008. nviting or Avoiding Deception through Trust? Conceptual Exploration of an Ambivalent Relationship, MPIfG Working Paper 08/1. Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    Machlup, F. 1984. The Economics of Information and Human Capital. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
    University Press.
    MacKenzie, D. 2007. Is Economics Performative? Option Theory and the Construction of Derivatives Markets. In D. MacKenzie, F. Muniesa, & L. Siu (Eds.), Do Economists Make Markets? : 54–86. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Mahoney, J. T. 2005. Economic foundations of strategy. CA: SagePublications: Thousand Oaks.
    Mantel, S. J., & Rosegger, G. 1987. The role of third-parties in the diffusion of innovations: a survey. In R. Rothwell, & J. Bessant (Eds.), Innovation: Adaptation and Growth: 123-134. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    March, J. G. 1991. Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning. Organization Science, 2(1): 71-87.
    McEvily, B., & Zaheer, A. 1999. Bridging ties: a source of firm heterogeneity in competitive capabilities. Strategic Management Journal, 20: 1133-1156.
    Meyer, M. 2010. The Rise of the Knowledge Broker. Science Communication, 32(1): 118-127.
    Miles, I. 2000. Services innovation: coming of age in the knowledgebased economy. International Journal of Innovation Management, 4: 371-389.
    Millar, C. C. J. M., & Choi, C. J. 2003. Advertising and knowledge intermediaries: managing the ethical challenges of intangibles. Journal of Business Ethics 48: 267–277.
    Morgan, E. J., & Crawford, N. 1996. Technology broking activities in Europe - A survey. International Journal of Technology Management, 12(3): 360-367.
    Muthusamy, S. K., & White, M. A. 2005. Learning and knowledge transfer in strategic alliances: A social exchange view. Organization Studies, 26(3): 415-441.
    Nambisan, S., & Sawhney, M. 2007. A Buyer’s Guide to the Innovation Bazaar. Harvard Business Review, June: 109-118.
    Nelson, R. R. 1989. What Is Private and What Is Public about Technology? Science, Technology, & Human Values, 14(3): 229-241.
    Nelson, R. R. 2004. The Market Economy, and the Scientific Commons. Research Policy, 33: 455-471.
    Nickerson, J. A., & Zenger, T. 2004. A knowledge-based theory of the firm: The problemsolving perspective. Organization Science, 15(6): 617-632.
    Nonaka, I. 1994. A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation. Organization Science, 5(1): 14-37.
    O’Farrell, P. N., & Moffat, L. A. R. 1991. An interaction model of business service production and consumption. British Journal of Management, 2: 205-221.
    Olson, M. 1971. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Ouchi, W. G. 1980. Markets, Bureaucracies and Clans. Administrative Science Quarterly, 25: pp129-141.
    Parr, C. 2006. Due Diligence: Worth a Look? Business Law Review, 10: 232-233.
    Perez Pugatch, M. 2004. What is the Value of Your Patent? Theory, Myth and Reality, IPR Helpdesk Bulletin.
    Pilorget, L. 1993. Innovation consultancy services in the European community. International Journal of Technology Management 8: 687–696.
    Podolny, J. M. 2005. Status Signals: A Sociological Study of Market Competition. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Powell, W. W., Kogut, K. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. 1996. Interorganizational collaboration and locus of innovation: Networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1): 285-307.
    Provan, K. G., & Human, S. E. 1999. Organizational learning and the role of the network broker in small-firm manufacturing networks. In A. Grandori (Ed.), Interfirm Networks: Organization and Industrial Competitiveness: 185–207. London: Routledge.
    Rindfleisch, A., & Heide, J. B. 1997. Transaction cost analysis:Past, present and future applications. Journal of Marketing, 61(4): 30-54.
    Rivette, K. G., & Kline, D. 2000. Rembrandts in the Attic: Unlocking the Hidden Value of Patents. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Roman, D. D., & Puett, J. F. 1983. International business and technological innovation. Nueva York: Elsevier Science Publishing.
    Schelling, T. C. 1960. The Strategy of Conflict. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Seaton, R. A. F., & Cordey-Hayes, M. 1993. The development and application of interactive models of industrial technology transfer. Technovation, 13(1): 45-53.
    Semadeni, M. 2000. The arbitrage of knowledge: the process of client knowledge arbitrage by management consulting firms. Paper presented at the Academy of management proceedings.
    Shane, S. 2000. Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11(4): 448-469.
    Shohet, S., & Prevezer, M. 1996. UK biotechnology: institutional linkages, technology transfer and the role of intermediaries. R&D Management, 26(3): 283-298.
    Simon, H. 1992. Economics, Bounded Rationality and the Cognitive Revolution. Elgar: Brookfield.
    Smith, C. W. 1990. Auctions. The Social Construction of Value. Berkeley: University of California.
    Spender, J. C. 1994. Organizational Knowledge, Collective Practice and Penrose Rents. International Business Review, 3(4): 353-367.
    Spulber, D. F. 1999. Market microstructure: intermediaries and the theory of the firm. Cambridge, U.K.: New York : Cambridge University Press.
    Stankiewicz, R. 1995. The role of the science and technology infrastructure in the development and diffusion of industrial automation in Sweden. In B. Carlsson (Ed.), Technological Systems and Economic Performance: The Case of Factory Automation: 165–210. Kluwer: Dordrecht.
    Stehr, N. 2002. Knowledge and Economic Conduct: The Social Foundations of the Modern Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Stigler, G. J. 1951. The division of labor is limited by the extent of the market. Journal of Political Economy, 59: 185-193.
    Teece, D. J. 1988. Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration,
    Licensing and Public Policy. In M. L. Tushman, & W. L. Moore (Eds.), Readings in the Management of Innovation: 621–647. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Teece, D. J. 1998a. Capturing Value from Knowledge Assets: The New Economy, Markets For Know-how, And Intangible Assets. California Management Review, 40(3): 55-79.
    Teece, D. J. 1998b. Capturing Value from Knowledge Assets: The New Economy, Markets For Know-how,
    And Intangible Assets. California Management Review 40(3): 55-79.
    Tirole, J. 1988. The Theory of Industrial Organization. Boston: MIT Press.
    Troy, I. 2012. Patent Transactions and Markets for Patents: Dealing with Uncertainty. Utrecht: Irene Troy.
    Troy, I., & Werle, R. 2008. uncertainty and the market for patnet, MplfG Working paper, Vol. 08/2. Cologne: Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    Van de Ven, A. H., Polley, D. E., Garud, R., & Venkataraman, S. 1999. The Innovation Journey. New York: Oxford University Press.
    van der Meulen, B., & Rip, A. 1998. Mediation in the Dutch science system. Research Policy, 27(8): 757-769.
    Verona, G., Prandelli, E., & Sawhney, M. 2006. Innovation and virtual environments: Towards virtual knowledge brokers. Organization Studies, 27(6): 765-788.
    von Hippel, E. 1998. Economics of Product Development by Users: The Impact of “Sticky” Local Information. Management Science, 44: 629-644.
    Watkins, D., & Horley, G. 1986. Transferring technology from large to small firms: the role of intermediaries. In T. Webb, T. Quince, & D. Watkins (Eds.), Small Business Research: 215–251. Gower: Aldershot
    Williamson, O. E. 1979. Transaction cost economics: the governance of contractual relations. Journal of Law and Economics, 22(October): 233-261.
    Williamson, O. E. 1985. the ecnoomic institutions of capitalism. New York: Free Press.
    Williamson, O. E. 2000. The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking ahead. Journal of Economic Literature 38: 595-613.
    Winch, G. M., & Courtney, R. 2007. The organization of innovation brokers: an international review. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 19(6): 747-763.
    Wolpert, J. D. 2002. Breaking out of the innovation box. Harvard Business Review, August: 77–83.
    Wright, M., Clarysse, B., Lockett, A., & Knockaert, M. 2008. Mid-range universities’ linkages with industry: Knowledge types and the role of intermediaries. Research Policy, 37(8 ): 1205-1223.
    Yin, R. K. 1994. Case study research- design and methods: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Yusuf, S. 2008. Intermediating knowledge exchange between universities and businesses. Research Policy, 37(8): 1167-1174.
    Zenger, T. R., Felin, T., & Bigelow, L. 2011. Theories of the firm-market boundary. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1): 89-133.
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    92359504
    101
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0923595043
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    504301.pdf2970KbAdobe PDF361View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback