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    Title: 建構美食的創意城鄉之探討─以宜蘭為例
    An exploration of the construction of a creative city of gastronomy : A case of Yilan
    Authors: 韋文豐
    Wei, Wen Feng
    Contributors: 吳靜吉
    Wu, Jing Jyi
    韋文豐
    Wei, Wen Feng
    Keywords: 創意城市
    美食之都
    宜蘭
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-07-22 10:52:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究的主要目的是要瞭解一般人對宜蘭成為美食之都的可行性認知。為了完成這個目的,首先進行量表的編制與測試,量表的編制是以 UNESCO的文獻為基礎,翻譯其列舉的8項指標,作為「UNESCO美食之都指標量表」的題目。然後再從至2013年6月為止,獲選的四個城市的申請資料中,找出每個城市獲選的其它特色,在UNESCO官方網站的資料中,發現四個城市當中共有6個特殊的獲選項目,作為「UNESCO四個美食之都的特色條件量表」的題目。
    UNESCO的所有相關資料中,也都會將有機、慢活等因素列入參考或評選,本研究也特別根據慢城憲章的評分表,選出18個項目,作為「慢城量表」的題目。既然聯合國所推動的是創意城市,而以美食等7個主題作為其創意城市的特色,以美食為例,美食不可能單獨存在,他必須有其創意城市的脈絡,所以本研究也利用Florida 的4T概念,確認衡量創意城市的條件,共設計8個項目,作為「創意城鄉量表」的題目。
    根據這些文獻分析的結果,本研究編製了衡量美食創意城鄉的所有量表,共計40題,透過網路媒介蒐集資料,最後共蒐集有效樣本364份(宜蘭人141人,非宜蘭人223人),各項個人背景變項之性別部分,男性共173人(47.5%),女性共191人(42.5%);年齡部分,16-24歲共180人(49.5%),25-29歲共99人(27.2%),30-34歲共43人(11.8%),35歲以上共42人(11.5%);教育程度部分,大學人數最高共218人(60.0%),碩士含碩士以上次之共107人(29.4%)。本研究將衡量美食創意城鄉的所有量表作因素分析,並且列出各個因素的Cronbach's α值。
    「UNESCO美食之都指標量表」的因素分析結果,跑出一個因素(α值=.801)。「UNESCO四個美食之都的特色條件量表」,因素分析的結果,跑出一個因素(α=.763)。原來的「UNESCO美食之都指標量表」(8題),再加上「UNESCO四個美食之都的特色條件量表」(6題),共14個題目,一起進行因素分析,共萃取「傳統美食特色」(α=.729)、「多元食材與文化特色」(α=.750)、「美食推廣」(α=.746)三個因素。
    「慢城量表」的18個題目,經因素分析結果,共萃取2個因素,第一個因素為「有機生活文化傳承」(α值=.886),第二個因素為「經營管理旅遊觀光」(α值=.861)。
    根據Florida 4T理論編制的「創意城鄉量表」之8個題目,經因素分析結果,共萃取2個因素,第一個因素為「人才、環境、包容」(α值=.812),第二個因素為「科技應用」(α值=.876)。
    從各因素構面的平均值來判斷,在李克氏五點量表中都是在普通之上,一般人的可行性認知接近同意程度,從最高至最低依序為(1)「傳統美食特色」(4.09);(2)「UNESCO 美食之都指標」(3.96);(3)「美食推廣」(3.91);(4)「UNESCO 4個美食之都的特色條件」(3.86);(5)「人才、環境、包容」(3.32);(6)「多元食材與文化特色」(3.78);(7)「有機生活文化傳承」(3.74);(8)「經營管理旅遊觀光」(3.6);(9)「科技應用」(3.32)。
    本研究也分析宜蘭人/非宜蘭人和性別在各項因素上的表現和差異性,在「UNESCO 4個美食之都的特色條件」、「傳統美食特色」、「多元食材與文化特色」、「美食推廣」、「有機生活文化傳承」和「人才、環境、包容」共6個因素構面上,宜蘭人的可行性認知顯著大於非宜蘭人。另外一個交互影響是男性宜蘭人在「有機生活文化傳承」方面的可行性認知顯著大於女性宜蘭人。
    從單一的題目角度來看,更能顯示研究對象的具體看法,本研究的問卷總共40個題目,這40題目在李克氏五點量表中,3為普通,4為同意,5為非常同意,在4.0以上的題目包括(1)「擁有豐盛的小吃(在地小吃、夜市小吃、特色小吃)」(4.26);(2)「在傳統的烹飪中會使用在地食材」(4.22);(3)「擁有豐富的生物多樣性及自然資源」(4.17);(4)「推動環保有效,維護好山好水」(4.16);(5)「促進並保護當地的文化活動」(4.12);(6)「擁有傳統的市場和傳統的食品產業」(4.09);(7)「可以發展美食作為其特色」(4.07);(8)「尊重環境並推動當地產品的永續性」(4.04);(9)「有計畫提高歷史、傳統工藝與文化的價值」(4.04)。這些被受試者認可的項目,相當能夠反映宜蘭的特色,一般來說宜蘭人的評分是比較高的,以「擁有豐盛的小吃(在地小吃、夜市小吃、特色小吃)」為例,宜蘭人的平均是4.44,而非宜蘭人的平均數則為4.15。
    本研究顯示,一般人針對宜蘭建構成為美食創意城鄉的可行性認知相當高,不僅宜蘭人認為可行性高,連非宜蘭人也認為是可行的。最後,本研究根據研究結果,對宜蘭的未來發展方向及建構美食創意城鄉,提供建議以供參考。
    The primary goal of this research is to understand the feasibility of Yilan becoming a “city of gastronomy.” To this end, the UNESCO City of Gastronomy Indicator Scale was constructed and tested based on Chinese translations of 8 indicators from UNESCO literature. Further, the UNESCO Four Cities of Gastronomy Features Conditions Scale was constructed by analyzing features of the four UNESCO cities (as of June 2013) selected as cities of gastronomy. These qualities were aggregated into 6 items.
    As relevant UNESCO literature all incorporates organic or Slow Living factors into their consideration, this research constructed a Slow City Scale composed of 18 items based on the Slow City Charter indicators. Finally, while gastronomy is one of the 7 themes listed by the United Nations as qualities of a creative city, gastronomy alone is not enough to make a creative city; a complete creative city context is necessary. Thus, a Creative City Scale was constructed of 8 items derived from Florida’s 4T’s concept in order to measure conditions for a creative city.
    Based on the results of the literature analysis, the scales constructed in this research to measure qualities of a city of gastronomy included a total of 40 items. A total of 364 effective samples (141 from Yilan and 223 from outside Yilan) were collected online. Factor analysis was completed for all of the items in the scales, and Cronbach’s α obtained for each factor.
    Results of the factor analysis for the UNESCO City of Gastronomy Indicator Scale produced a single factor (α=.801 ),and results of the factor analysis for the UNESCO Four Cities of Gastronomy Features Conditions Scale also produced a single factor (α=.763). A combined scale factor analysis was completed using the combined 14 items from the UNESCO City of Gastronomy Indicator Scale (8 items) and the UNESCO Four Cities of Gastronomy Features Conditions Scale (6 items), and three factors were extracted: traditional gastronomy features (α=.729 ); diverse in-gredients and cultural characteristics (α=.750 ); and gastronomy promotion (α=.746 ).
    A factor analysis of the 18 items in Slow City Scale extracted 2 factors: organic living and cultural heritage (α=.886 ); and tourism management (α=.861 ).
    A factor analysis of the 8 items in the Creative City Scale constructed from Florida’s 4T’s concept extracted 2 factors: talent, territory, and tolerance (α=.812 ); and technology applications (α=.876 ).
    Means for all of the factors, were above 3 on a 5-point Likert scale, indicating that in general, respondents agreed it was feasible for Yilan to become a city of gastronomy. From highest to lowest, mean scores were as follows: 1)traditional gastronomy features(4.09); 2)UNESCO city of gastronomy indicator(3.96); 3)gastronomy promotion(3.91); 4)UNESCO four cities of gastronomy features conditions(3.86); 5)talent, territory, and tolerance(3.32); 6)diverse living and cultural characteristics(3.78); 7)organic living and cultural heritage(3.74); 8) tourism management(3.6); and 9)technology applications(3.32).
    This research also analyzed differences in responses between respondents from Yilan and from outside of Yilan, and of different genders. For six factors (UNESCO four cities of gastronomy features conditions; tra-ditional gastronomy features; diverse living and cultural character-istics; gastronomy promotion; organic living and cultural heritage; and talent, territory, and tolerance), perceived feasibility was higher for those from Yilan and than those from outside of Yilan. Further, there was an interaction effect regarding “organic living and cultural heritage,” as males from Yilan had higher perceived feasibility than females from Yilan.
    When viewed individually, items offer a more comprehensive understanding of respondents’ perspectives. The questionnaire consisted of 40 items, and using Likert scale, 3 is “average” and, 4 is “agree”and,5 is “very agree”. Item with mean scores above 4.0 includes the following: 1) have abundant local cuisine (e.g., local, night market, specialty) (4.26); 2) use of local ingredients in traditional cooking (4.22); 3) have abundant biodiversity and natural resources(4.17); 4) promote ecofriendly practices, and protect the environment (4.16); 5) develop and protect local cultural activities (4.12); 6) have traditional market and food industries (4.09); 7) can develop gastronomy as its characteristic features (4.07); 8) respect the environment and promote sustainability of local product’s(4.04);9) have plans to improve the value of history, traditional craft art, and culture (4.04). The qualities recognized by the respondents can be used to reflect the dominant features of Yilan,. Naturally, local Yilan residents provided higher scores , for example, Yilan locals averaged 4.44 (from outside of Yilan 4.15)for the item “have abundant local cuisine.”
    This research indicates, respondents’ perceived feasibility of Yilan becoming a creative city of gastronomy is rather high. This was true of not just Yilan locals, but also of people from outside of Yilan. Based on these results, suggestions are provided for the construction of Yilan as a creative city of gastronomy.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    100359025
    101
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100359025
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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