現代化是一個從社會學借來的辭彙，其原先指涉從原始的社會變成現代化工業社會的過程，中間包括更為分化與複雜的社會結構。有些現代化理論者認為，在經濟高度發展之下，只有民主體制可以提供政權合法性。杭廷頓《第三波》一書對於民主轉型前威權體制的分類，台灣、俄國與中國皆屬於一黨專制體制的類型，台灣與俄國民主轉型啟動時間幾乎在一九九○年代同步進行，但發展狀況完全不同，反觀中國卻威權體制依舊。然而，從另外一個角度來看，台灣在兩千年政黨輪替以後，經濟不再快速發展，但中國卻是全世界經濟發展最快的國家之一，而俄國在九○年代民主轉型初期階段經濟發展停滯，甚至於倒退，但在這幾年普亭總統領導之下，雖然自由程度倒退，但經濟發展快速穩健，而被列為全世界所謂的金磚四國之一。因此，台灣、俄國與中國的現代化歷程，尤其是政治、經濟、社會層面，?得進一步作深入的比較分析。 Modernization, borrowed from sociology, refers to the process that a society transforms into an industrial society from an original one. Such modernization involves much more diverse and complicated social structural changes in the transformation process. Some of modernization theorists propose that only democracy can provide the legal basis for owning the political state power under a highly developed economy. 」 The Third Wave 「by Samuel P. Huntington states that all the authority institutions for Taiwan, Russia and China before the democratic transformation can be classified as the one-party rule systems. While both Taiwan and Russia started a democratic transformation nearly almost at the same time of 1990s, they have developed into completely different patterns. However, China has still remained as a one-party rule state till now. From another view, Taiwan』s economy has no longer grown swiftly since the year of 2000 when a change in the ruling party occurred. Contradictory, China with one-party rule system is one of the most currently growing economies in the world. Although the Russia』s economy was once backward at the first beginning of democratic transformation, it has been steadily growing under the leadership of Russian President Putin even at the cost of freedom. Russia is one of the so-called Bricks states. Hence, this research attempts to investigate the modernization process in Taiwan, Russia and China, particularly focusing on its further impacts on political issues, economic development and social status via comparative studies.