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    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/54863
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/54863


    Title: 由上而下因素對情緒刺激之注意力攫取的影響
    The influence of top-down factors on attentional capture of emotional stimuli
    Authors: 鐘弘達
    Chung hung Ta
    Contributors: 黃淑麗
    Huang Shwu Lih
    鐘弘達
    Chung hung Ta
    Keywords: 由上而下因素
    由下而上歷程
    注意力攫取
    一致效果
    與情緒相關
    突顯程度
    top-down factors
    bottom-up processing
    attentional capture
    congruency effect
    emotion-relevance
    saliency
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2012-10-30 14:01:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 過去的研究指出,具有威脅訊息的情緒臉孔會比正向情緒臉孔快速地吸引個體的注意力。視覺搜尋研究發現情緒臉孔的突顯程度會引發由下而上的注意力攫取,而由下而上的注意力攫取是否能夠被由上而下的因素所凌駕,一直是一個很重要的論爭,因此,本研究同時呈現兩種情緒臉孔,並以文字線索引發由上而下注意力選擇,以探討由上而下的因素是否能夠凌駕情緒臉孔之注意力攫取,並比較不同情緒臉孔攫取注意力的強度。實驗一探討文字線索是否能夠幫助注意力搜尋目標情緒臉孔。實驗二使用一致效果當作注意力攫取指標,探討當臉孔情緒與作業相關時,由上而下因素是否能夠凌駕干擾情緒臉孔為生氣臉孔或快樂臉孔之注意力攫取,以及比較生氣與快樂臉孔攫取注意力的強度。實驗三延續實驗二的研究,將臉孔情緒改為與作業無關,比較生氣臉孔與快樂臉孔攫取注意力的強度。實驗四與實驗二實驗程序相同,但增加倒立中性臉孔與生氣臉孔或快樂臉孔同時呈現情況,如此在以倒立中性臉孔為目標或干擾臉孔情況,可以比較生氣臉孔與快樂臉孔之由上而下因素注意力選擇與由下而上注意力攫取強度。本研究結果在大部分情況下並未獲得一致效果,顯示由上而下之注意力選擇會影響由下而上之情緒臉孔攫取注意力,使得干擾臉孔未能吸引注意力於其上。然而由下而上注意力攫取仍影響搜尋情緒臉孔的反應時間,結果顯示生氣臉孔與快樂臉孔競爭下,生氣臉孔的突顯程度大於快樂臉孔,說明生氣臉孔較快樂臉孔吸引注意力。
    Previous studies using visual search task showed that the saliency of the emotional faces was sufficient to induce the bottom-up attentional capture. It is a critical debate that whether top-down factors can override bottom-up attentional capture. To address this issue, we presented two emotional faces at the same display while using word cues to induce top-down attentional selection. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of word cues on the target face searching. Using congruency effect as an index of attentional capture, Experiment 2 investigated whether top-down factors could override attentional capture of the emotional distractors when emotion is task-relevant and the degree of attentional capture of angry faces was compared with that of happy faces. In Experiment 3, face emotion was changed to be task-irrelevant rather than task-relevant, and the degree of attentional capture of angry and happy faces was also contrasted. In Experiment 4, the invert neutral face was included additionally as another target or distractor. We can use the invert neutral face as the common basis to dissociate the components of top-down attentional selection and bottom-up attentional capture, and contrast the attention effects between angry and happy faces in these two aspects independently. The results showed that congruency effect could not be found in most conditions. This implies that top-down attentional selection can influence the bottom-up attentional capture of emotional faces. But reaction time for searching target was still found to be influenced by bottom-up process. When an angry face competes with a happy face, the saliency of the angry face is higher than the happy face.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    心理學研究所
    98752010
    100
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0098752010
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

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