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    Title: 實驗機能、管理作為與創新績效關連之研究
    Other Titles: The Relationship among Experimentation Function, Managerial Practice and Innovation Performance
    Authors: 吳思華
    Contributors: 政治大學科技管理研究所
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 實驗行動;創新歷程;餘裕資源;實驗氛圍;創新績效
    experimentation;innovation process;slack;climate for experimentation;innovation performance
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2012-10-24 09:26:33 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 追求創新突破已成為現代組織最重要的任務,然而,環境變動快速、顧客需求詭譎多變,在在形成對組織的重大挑戰。組織創新歷程所面臨的情境,皆有所不同:有些有明確的目標(或問題),但缺乏解決的技術;有些則擁有技術知識,但適合的應用領域則未知(或是與原本設想不同),因此,「實驗(experimentation)」在創新歷程中,扮演著重要的關鍵位置。透過文獻回顧,吾人瞭解組織透過實驗,發現以往未知或未加解釋的新事實,或判斷現象或變量間的因果關係,可為組織帶來擴張知識基礎、挑戰既有假設、提升變革適應能力、與新機會追尋和辨識等效益,成為績效展現的關鍵;然而,其間所伴隨的風險與成本,卻也讓多數組織對實驗活動產生猶豫。Pavitt(1998)強調組織在實驗方面的努力,即使失敗了,也是在為不確定的未來創造多重選擇的機會。然而,儘管如此,多數與實驗議題相關之研究,將焦點集中在實驗工具、模式的探討與分析,或是實驗在組織學習、策略能耐中所扮演的角色與效用,而缺乏對如何促進與維持實驗行動(experimental practices)在組織內運作之研究探討。本研究將以探討促進與維持組織實驗行動之組織要素為主要研究目的,經由要素構念量表與衡量方式之發展,討論餘裕資源與實驗氛圍與組織實驗行動、創新績效間的互動關係。透過文獻與先導案例的解析,本研究認為餘裕資源為施行實驗行動的資源基礎,包括:人力、設備與產權資源,不同的資源狀態將對實驗行動的頻次、速度與範圍產生影響;而透過對組織氛圍的認知,將影響組織成員行為發生與施行的意願,尤其是實驗的風險性將對成員造成壓力,因此,一個肯定且正面的組織實驗氛圍,除了消極去除成員害怕失敗的心理,更能正向鼓勵其活動的發想與執行。在研究方法的設計上,則以文獻回顧與先導個案分析所設立之研究假說與架構為基礎,透過量表發展、問卷調查,對變數加以衡量並瞭解其互動內涵,期能對創新管理學理與實務提出研究結論與建言。
    Base on the related literature reviews of organizational innovation, the author take an argument that there are intensive relations among experimentation function, managerial practice and innovation performance, and will lead to competition advantage to organization. Hence, by investigating the content of experimentation function, this research would understand how organizations operate the function effectively to bring learning and interaction as the key elements of broken-through innovation. Furthermore, the realization of experimentation function needs the match of corresponding managerial practices to work smoothly and get the utility of learning. As innovation has become the most important factor of performance, organizations need serious processes transforming their concepts, skills and knowledge to products or services which fit the need of market. And experimentation is the most vital activity in these processes to accumulate knowledge and insight through continuous try-and-errors, dialogues and experiences. Integrated from literature and practical opinions, the author draws three main factors of experimentation function. They include :(1) to create a climate that tolerates difference and failure and even encourage playfulness; (2) to establish the capacity of experimentation to see that a lot of early and often experiments actually occur to test every kinds of alternatives; (3) to set in place mechanisms to ensure that the organization learn from those activities. However, the smooth running of experimentation function needs the supports of matching managerial practices. Leadership, group relationship, the accessibility of resource, knowledge and the flexibility of operation all are considered as important elements and each of them has different kinds of influence on experimentation factors. To exploring the relationship between these two groups of sub-elements is the second object of this research. In this way, we can even clarify the cause and effect between administrative mechanism and product innovation performance, which has been discussed a lot but still in question in both the academic and practical community.
    Relation: 應用研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9508 ~ 9607
    研究經費:528仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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