Recent research reveals a significant positive relationship between social resources and career success, as measured by salary, promotion and job satisfaction. The literature indicates that the two factors most significantly related to success in medical field are social ties and educational background. However, exactly how educational background and social resources influence the career development of physicians has seldom been examined. This survey of 601 physicians in Taiwan revealed that social capital significantly predicts the career success of physicians in terms of better choice of employment and likelihood of attaining managerial positions. Additionally, physicians with collegial confidants of higher status ranks and different medical specialty were more likely to be in managerial positions. The findings demonstrate the importance of professional networks in the career development of physicians. This study confirms both the social resource and structural-hole concepts of social capital theory and refutes educational stratification theory and credential-ism.