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    Title: GATS不歧視原則之要件與爭議問題之研究
    Authors: 余玫琪
    Yu, Mei Chi
    Contributors: 張新平
    余玫琪
    Yu, Mei Chi
    Keywords: 服務貿易
    服務貿易總協定
    不歧視原則
    最惠國待遇原則
    國民待遇原則
    Trade in services
    GATS
    non-discrimination
    most-favored-nation treatment
    national treatment
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 14:07:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 服務貿易總協定(General Agreement on Trade in Services,GATS)秉持WTO之中心精神,以不歧視原則為重要基礎原則之一,分別規定於GATS第2條之最惠國待遇原則與第17條之國民待遇原則。
    依據GATS第2條及第17條之規定,不歧視原則之要件包括:1)會員所採影響服務貿易之措施之要件;2)會員在特定承諾表做出開放承諾之要件(僅國民待遇原則);3)來自其他會員之類似服務及服務供給者之要件;以及4)歧視性待遇之要件。
    相較於GATT貨品貿易之不歧視原則而言,目前涉及GATS不歧視原則之要件與爭議問題等研究,仍處於發展階段,部分要件甚至仍未出現有力之實務見解,例如「服務及服務供給者之類似性」等,本文即希望透過拆解GATS不歧視原則之要件的方式,提出各要件可能發生之爭議問題,歸納分析目前WTO爭端解決實務見解及相關學術意見,一方面釐清GATS不歧視原則之法律全貌,一方面則藉由這些爭議的提出,期能拋磚引玉,對於將來有更多深化且精闢之相關研究之提出,有所助益。
    最後,本文並依分析結果,針對各項爭議問題,提出我國目前法規體制在這些爭議問題下可能產生之疑義及我國主管機關可能之採行策略及方向建議。
    關鍵字:服務貿易、服務貿易總協定、不歧視原則、最惠國待遇原則、國民待遇原則。
    Non-discrimination is one of the fundamental principles under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is embodied as the most-favored-nation treatment and the national treatment under the Articles 2 and 17 of the GATS.
    According to the Articles 2 and 17 of the GATS, the elements of non-discrimination include: 1) must be measures by Members affecting trade in services, 2) Members have made commitments in its Schedule (national treatment applies only), 3) likeness of services and service suppliers of Members, and 4) must be no less favourable treatment.
    Compared with non-discrimination under the GATT, which has been developed more completely, the elements and their related issues of non-discrimination under the GATS are still lacking representative or binding opinions. For example, the issue of “likeness of services and service suppliers” has not been addressed officially on findings of panel or appellate body reports. This article tries to analyze all elements under non-discrimination of the GATS, raise possible issues, and conclude related findings of WTO dispute settlement and opinions of academic publications. By doing this, the legal structure of GATS non-discrimination and possible issues would be clarified more completely. More importantly, we are hoping this beginning would help forward more and more future profounder researches focusing on issues of GATS non-discrimination.
    Finally, based on the research results, this Article brings up some potential problems which may happen under the legal system of our country and proposes possible strategies and measures to be taken.
    Key Words: Trade in services, GATS, non-discrimination, most-favored-nation treatment, national treatment.
    Reference: 一、中文資料
    (一)書籍
    1.吳庚,《行政法之理論與實用》,增訂九版,三民書局,2005年10月。
    2.張新平,《世界貿易組織下之服務貿易》,月旦出版社,1996年3月。
    3.黃立、李貴英、林彩瑜,《WTO國際貿易法論》,元照出版社,二版,2001年2月。
    4.彭心儀,《WTO服務貿易與通訊科技法律》,元照出版社,2005年9月。
    5.楊光華,《WTO新回合服務貿易談判對我國之影響及因應措施》,行政院經濟建設委員會委託專案研究計畫,2001年12月。
    6.羅昌發,《國際貿易法》,元照出版社,1999年。
    (二)期刊
    1.張新平,〈GATS自然人移動有關問題之探討〉,《政大法學評論》,第80期,2004年8月。
    2.彭心儀,〈由美國禁止網路賭博爭端案論服務貿易市場開放及國民待遇之規範解釋與體系建構〉,收錄於楊光華主編,彭心儀等人合著之《第五屆國際經貿法學發展學術研討會論文集》。
    (三)學位論文
    1.林莉璇,《WTO服務貿易規章中「國內規章」條款之研究》,國立政治大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文,2000年7月。
    2.洪佳琳,《由安地瓜控告美國禁止線上博奕案─探討服務貿易之部門分類標準》,國立政治大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文,2004年7月。
    3.黃渝清,《評安地瓜控告美國禁止網路賭博案---以服務貿易特定承諾與一般例外規定之關係為中心》,國立政治大學國際貿易研究所碩士論文,2005年7月。
    4.劉漢威,《GATS自然人移動之重要議題及我國相關對策分析》,國立政治大學法律研究所碩士論文,2005年4月。
    5.蘇妍旭,《空運服務與WTO相關規範之研究》,國立政治大學法律研究所碩士論文,2002年7月。
    二、英文資料
    (一)書籍
    1.Aaditya Mattoo & Pierre Sauve (eds.), Domestic Regulation and Service Trade Liberalization, 2003.
    2.Pierre Sauve & Robert M. Stern (eds.), GATS 2000: New Directions in Services Trade Liveralization, 2000.
    3.Scott Sinclair & Jim Grishaber- Otto, Facing the Fact: A Guide to the GATS Debate, 2000.
    4.WTO, GATS- Fact and Fiction, 2001.
    5.WTO, Guide to the GATS: An Overview of Issues for Future Liberalization of Trade in Services, 2000.
    6.WTO, WTO Analytical Index- Guide to WTO Law and Practice, 2003.
    7.WTO, WTO Dispute Settlement: One- Page Case Summeries (1995- September 2006), 2006.
    (二)期刊文章及專書文章
    1.Aaditya Mattoo, MFN and the GATS, presented at the World Trade Forum Conference on “Most- Favoured Nation: Past and Present”, August 1998.
    2.Aaditya Mattoo, National Treatment in the GATS: Corner- stone or Pandora’s Box? Available from http://www.wto.org/English/res_e/reser_e/ tisd-96-02. doc
    3.Alan Yanovich and Tania Voon, What is the measure at issue? in Andrew D Mitchell, ed., Changes and Prospects for the WTO, 2005.
    4.Fiona Smith & Lorna Woods, A Distinction Without a Difference: Exploring the Boundary Between Goods and Services in the World Trade Organization and the European Union, Columbia Journal of European Law, 12:1, 2005.
    5.Julia Ya Qin, Defining nondiscrimination under the law of the world trade organization, Boston university international law joural, vol. 23(2005).
    6.Mireille Cossy, Determining “likeness” under the GATS: Squaring the circle?, WTO Staff Working Paper ERSD- 2006- 08.
    7.Peter K. Morrison, WTO Dispute Settlement in Services: Procedural and Substantive Aspects, in E.U. Petersmann, ed., International Trade Law and the GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System (Kluwer Law International, 1997).
    8.Wener Zdouc, WTO Dispute Settlement Practice Relating to the GATS, Journal of International Economic Law, 1999.
    (三)WTO文件
    1.Appellate Body Report, European Communities- Regime for the Importation Sale and Distribution of Bananas, WT/DS27/AB/R, adopted 25 September 1997.
    2.Appellate Body Report, Canada- Certain Measures Concerning Periodicals, WT/DS31/AB/R, adopted 30 July 1997.
    3.Appellate Body Report, Canada- Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry, WT/DS139/AB/R, WT/DS142/AB/R, adopted 19 June 2000.
    4.Appellate Body Report, United Sates- Measures Affecting the Cross- Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services, WT/DS285/AB/R, adopted 20 April 2005.
    5.Appellate Body Report, United States- Sunset review of Anti- Dumping Duties on Corrosion- Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Japan, WT/DS244/AB/R, adopted 9 January 2004.
    6.Appellate Body Report, US- Corrosion- Resistant Steel Sunset Review.
    7.Appellate Body Report, United States- Countervailing Measures Concerning Certain Products from the European Comunities, WT/DS212/AB/R, adopted 8 January 2003.
    8.Appellate Body Report, United States- Countervailing Duties on Certain Corrosion- Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Germany, WT/DS213/AB/R, adopted 19 December 2002.
    9.Appellate Body Report, European Communities- Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos- Products, WT/DS135/AB/R, adopted 5 April 2001.
    10.Appellate Body Report, Japan- Taxes on Alcoholic Beverages, WT/DS8/AB/R, WT/DS10/AB/R, WT/DS11/AB/R, adopted 1 November, 1996.
    11.Panel Report, European Communities- Regime for the Importation Sale and Distribution of Bananas, WT/DS27/R/ECU/GTM/HND/MEX/USA, adopted 25 September 1997.
    12.Panel Report, Canada- Certain Measures Concerning Periodicals, WT/DS31/R and Corr.1, adopted 30 July 1997.
    13.Panel Report, Japan- Measures Affecting Consumer Photographic Film and Paper, WT/DS44/R, adopted 22 April 1998.
    14.Panel Report, Canada- Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry, WT/DS139/R, WT/DS142/R, adopted 19 June 2000.
    15.Panel Report, Mexico- Measures Affecting Telecommunications Services, WT/DS204/R, adopted 1 June 2004.
    16.Panel Report, United Sates- Measures Affecting the Cross- Border Supply of Gambling and Betting Services, WT/DS285/R, adopted 20 April 2005.
    17.Panel Report, United States- Sunset review of Anti- Dumping Duties on Corrosion- Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Japan, WT/DS244/R, adopted 9 January 2004.
    18.Panel Report, United States- Countervailing Measures Concerning Certain Products from the European Comunities, WT/DS212/R, adopted 8 January 2003.
    19.Panel Report, United States- Countervailing Duties on Certain Corrosion- Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Germany, WT/DS213/AB/R, adopted 19 December 2002.
    20.WTO, Guidelines for the Scheduling of Specific Commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services, WTO Doc. S/L/92, 28 March 2001.
    21.WTO, Scheduling of Initial Commitments in Trade in Services: Explanatory Note, WTO Doc. MTN.GNS/W/164, 3 September 1993.
    22.WTO, Scheduling of Initial Commitments in Trade in Services: Explanatory Note, WTO Doc., MTN.GNS/W/164/Add.1, 30 November 1993.
    23.WTO Secretariat, Services Sectoral Classification List, Doc. MTN.GNS/W/120, 10 July 1991.
    24.WTO, European Communities and their Member States- Schedule of Specific Commitment, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/31, 15 April 1994.
    25.WTO, Canada - Schedule of Specific Commitment, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/16, 15 April 1994.
    26.WTO, The United States of America- Schedule of Specific Commitment, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/90, 15 April 1994.
    27.WTO, The Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu- Schedule of Specific Commitment, WTO Doc. GATS/SC/136/Rev.1, 2 July 2002.
    (四)其他會員或國際組織文件及研究報告
    1.United Nations, Course on Dispute Settlement- Module 3.13. WTO: GATS, UNCTAD/EDM/Misc.232/Add.31, 11 March 2003, available from http:// www.unctad.org/en/docs/edmmisc232add31_en.pdf.
    2.United Nations, Provisional Central Product Classification, Satistical Papers M no. 77, version 1.1 U.N. Doc. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/77/Ver.1.1, March 2002.
    3.USITC, US Schedule of Commitments under the General Agreement on Trade in Services, May 1997.
    三、網站資料
    (一)中文
    1.中華經濟研究院台灣WTO中心網站:http://taiwan.wtocenter.org.tw/ www/speach01.asp
    2.全國法規資料庫入口網站:http://law.moj.gov.tw
    3.考試院網站:http://www.exam.gov.tw
    4.法源法律網:http://www.lawbank.com.tw
    5.國立政治大學商學院國際經貿組織暨法律研究中心:http://www. tradelaw.nccu.edu.tw/
    6.經濟部國貿局網站:http://www.trade.gov.tw
    (二)英文
    1.United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, http://www.unctad. org/Templates/StartPage.asp?intItemID=2068
    2.United Nations Statistics Division web-site, http://unstats.un.org/unsd/default. htm
    3.WTO website, http://www.wto.org
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易研究所
    90351037
    96
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0090351037
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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