Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
A Conceptual Model of Customer Experiences and Experience Quality: The Service Setting and The Customer's Perspective
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-18 13:38:46 (UTC+8)|
Today, more and more customers, managers and scholars have become aware of the importance of experiences, which are characterized as satisfying customers’ psychic or personal needs. For customers, they are not merely consuming products or services. They care more about the experiences, which are provided by the stores, and they are willing to pay for experiences. As for managers, they have made more efforts to create touching and attractive experiences for customers, manage customers’ experiential journey with the companies, or even charge for experiences. For academic researchers, they view experiences as distinct economic offerings, which are different from goods and services. They believe that the focus of the economy has been transferred into experience (Pine and Gilmore, 1998, 1999; Schmitt, 1999; O’Sullivan and Spangler, 1998) and experience industries are rising (Toffler, 1970, O’Sullivan and Spangler, 1998).
This study focuses on exploring the emotional aspects of customers’ experiences underlying the context of deliberately designed service settings. Two research objects are approached in this study. First, this research comprehensively explores the essence of customer experiences from the customer’s perspective. A qualitative study is conducted to find out the elements that constitute customers’ experiences, and a conceptual model that describes what is customer experience is thereby proposed. In this model, customer experience is made up of five elements (dimensions): the customers themselves and customers’ interactions with physical surroundings, service providers, other customers, and companions.
Second, this research attempts to probe customers’ emotional perceptions of experience quality and to develop an instrument to measure this construct. This research clarifies the concept of experience quality by reviewing the literature, conducting qualitative studies, performing a procedure of scale development, testing the relative importance of dimensions, and examining the relationship among experience quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty. The findings verify that experience quality, as a higher-order construct, is made up five first-order constructs, which are demonstrated in the result of the qualitative study. The result of this research also reveals that experience quality has positive effect on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Relevant discussion of applications, future research, and limitations are also provided in the conclusion.
|Reference: ||1. Abbott, Lawrence (1955), Quality and Competition, New York.|
2. Anderson, James C., and David W. Gerbing (1988), “Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach,” Psychological Bulletin, 103, pp. 411-423.
3. Arnould, Eric J. and Linda L. Price (1993), “River Magic: Extraordinary Experience and The Extended Service Encounter,” Journal of Consumer Research, 20, pp. 24-45.
4. Babakus, E. and G. Boller (1992), “An Empirical Assessment of The SERVQUAL Scale,” Journal of Business Research, 24, pp. 253-268.
5. Bahia, K., M. Paulin, and J. Perrien (2000), “Reconciliating Literature About Client Satisfaction and Perceived Service Quality, “ Journal of Professional Service Marketing, 21 (2), pp. 27-41.
6. Berman, Barry and Joel R. Evan (1995), Retail Management: A trategic Approach, 6th Edition, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
7. Berry, Leonard L., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and A. Parasuraman (1985), “Quality Counts in Services, Too,” Business Horizons, 28 (May-June), pp. 44-52.
8. Berry, Leonard L., Lewis P. Carbone, and Stephan H. Haeckel (2002), “Managing the Total Customer Experience,” MIT Sloan Management Review, 43 (3), pp. 85-89.
9. Berry, Leonard L. and Neeli Bendapudi (2003), “Clueing in Customers,” Harvard Business Review, February, pp. 100-106.
10. Bitner, Mary Jo, Bernard H. Booms, and Mary Stanfield Tetreault (1990), “The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents,” Journal of Marketing, 54 (January), pp. 71-84.
11. Bitner, Mary Jo (1992), “Servciescapes: The Impact of Physical Surroundings on Customers and Employees,” Journal of Marketing, 57 (April), pp. 57-71.
12. Bitner, Mary Jo, Bernard H. Booms, and L. A. Mohr (1994), “Critial Service Encounter: the Employee’s Viewpoint,” Journal of Marketing, 58 (October), pp. 95-106.
13. Bitner, Mary Jo, William T. Faranda, Amy R. Hubbert, and Valarie A. Zeithaml (1997), “Customer Contributions and Roles in Service Delivery,” International Journal of Service Industry Management, 8 (3), pp.193-205.
14. Bollen, K. A. (1989), Structural Equations with Latent Variables, New York: John Wiley.
15. Bolton, R. N. and J. H. Drew (1991), “A Multistage Model of Customers’ Assessments of Service Quality and Value, “ Journal of Customer Research, 17 (March), pp. 375-384.
16. Carbone Lewis P. and Stephan H. Haeckel (1994), “Engineering customer experiences,” Marketing Management, 3 (3), pp. 8-19.
17. Churchill, Gilbert A. (1979), “ A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs,” Journal of Marketing Research, 16 (February), pp. 64-73.
18. Clark, G. L., R. Johnston, and M. Shulver (2000), “Exploiting the Service Concept for Service Design and Development, “ In J. Fitzsimmons and M Fitzsimmons (Eds), New Service Design, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 71-91.
19. Cronin, J. J. Jr. and S. A. Taylor (1992), “Measuring Service Quality : A Reexamination and Extension,” Journal of Marketing, 56(3), pp.55-68.
20. Cronin, J. J. Jr. and S. A. Taylor (1994), “SERVPERF versus SERVQUAL. Reconciling Performance-Based and Perceptions-Minus-Expectation Measurement of Service Quality,” Journal of Marketing, 58(January), pp. 125-131.
21. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1975), Beyond Boredom and Anxiety, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
22. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1982), “Toward a Psychology of Optimal Experience,” In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. 13-36.
23. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Judith LeFevre (1989), “Optimal Experience in Work and Leisure,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (5), pp.815-822.
24. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1991), Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, New York: Harper Perennial.
25. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1997), Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life, New York: Basic Books.
26. Czepiel, John A., Michael R. Solomon, Carol F. Surprenant, and Evelyn G. Gutman (1985), “Service Encounters: An Overview,” In Czepiel, John A., Michael R. Solomon, and Carol F. Surprenant (Eds), The Service Encounter, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, pp. 3-15.
27. Davenport, T. and J. Beck (2002), The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
28. Dabholkar, Pratibha A. (1995), “A Contingency Framework for Predicting Causalty Between Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality,” Advances in Customer Research, 22, pp. 101-108.
29. Dabholkar, Pratibha A., Dayle I. Thorpe, and Joseph O. Rentz (1996), “A Measure of Service Quality for Retail Stores: Scale Development and Validation,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 24(1), pp. 3-16.
30. Gerbing, David W.and James C. Anderson (1988), “An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Unidimentionality and its Assessment,” Journal of Marketing Research, 25 (2), pp. 186-192.
31. Gobé, M. and S. Zyman (2001), Emotional Branding: The New Paradigm for Connecting Brands to People, New York: Allworth Press.
32. Goffman, Erving (1959), The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, New York: Doubleday and Co.
33. Goffman, Erving (1967), Interactional Ritual, Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co.
34. Goffman, Erving (1974), Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, New York: Harper and Row.
35. Goldstein, Susan Meyer, Robert Johnston, JoAnn Duffy, and Jay Rao (2002), “The Service Concept: the Missing Link in Service Design Research?” Journal of Operations Management, 20 (2), pp. 121-134.
36. Grace, Debra and Aron O’Gass (2004), “Examining Service Experiences and Post-Consumption Evaluations,” Journal of Service Marketing, 18(6), pp. 450-461.
37. Gronross, Christian (1984), Strategic Management and Marketing in the Service Sector, Chartwell-Bratt, UK.
38. Gronross, Christian (1988), “Service Quality: The Six Criteria of Good Perceived Service Quality,” Review of Business, 9 (3), pp. 10-13.
39. Grove, Stephen J. and Raymond P. Fisk (1992), “The Service Experience as Theater,” Advances In Consumer Research, 19, pp. 455-461.
40. Grove, Stephen J, Raymond P. Fisk, and Mary Jo Bitner (1992), “Dramatizing the Service Experience: A Managerial Approach,” In Teresa A. Swartz, David E. Bowen and Stephen W. Brown (Eds), Advances In Services Marketing and Management, London: JAI Press Inc, 1, pp. 91-121.
41. Grove, Stephen J., Raymond P. Fisk, and Joby John (2000), “Services as Theater,” In Teresa A. Swartz and Dawn Iacobucci (Eds.), Handbook of Services Marketing and Management, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 21-35.
42. Grove, Stephen J., Raymond P. Fisk, and Michael J. Dorsch (1998), “Assessing the Theatrical Components of the Service Encounter: A Cluster Analysis Examination,” The Service Industries Journal, 18 (3), pp. 116-134.
43. Guiry, Michael (1992), “Consumer and Employee Roles in Service Encounters,” Advances in Consumer Research, 19, pp. 666-672.
44. Gupta, Sudheer and Mirjana Vajic (2000), “The Contextual and Dialectical Nature of Experiences,” In James A. Fitzsimmons and Mona J. Fitzsimmons (Eds.), New Service Development: Creating Memorable Experiences, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 33-51.
45. Gwinner, Kevin P., Dwayne D. Gremler and Mary Jo Bitner (1998), “Relational Benefits in Services Industries: The Customer’s Perspective,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (2), pp. 101-114.
46. Hair, Joseph F., Anderson, Rolph E., Tatham, Ronald L., and Black, William C. (1998), Multivariate Data Analysis, Fifth Edition, Prentice-Hall International, Inc.
47. Hanefors, M. and L. Mossberg (2003), “Searching for the extraordinary meal experience,” Journal of Business and Management, 9 (3), pp. 249-270.
48. Harris, K., R. Harris and S. Baron (2001), “Customer Participation in Retail Services: Lessons From Brecht,” International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 29 (8), pp. 359-369.
49. Hill, Arthur V., David A. Collier, Craig M. Froehle, John C. Goodale, Richard D. Metters, and Rohit Verma (2002), “Research Opportunities in Service Process Design,” Journal of Operations Management, 20 (2), pp. 189-202.
50. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. and Morris B. Holbrook (1982), “ Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods, and Propositions,” Journal of Marketing, 47 (Summer), pp. 45-55.
51. Holbrook, Morris B. and Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1982), “The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun,” Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (2), pp. 132-141.
52. Holbrook, Morris B., Robert W. Chestnut, Terence A. Oliva, and Eric A. Greenleaf (1984), “Play as a Consumption Experience: The Roles of Emotions, Performance, and Personality in the Enjoyment of Games,” Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (September), pp. 728-739.
53. Holbrook, Morris B. (1994), “The Nature of Customer Value: An Axiology of Services in the Consumption Experiences,” In Roland Rust and Richard Oliver (Eds.), Service Quality: New directions In Theory and Practice, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 21-71.
54. Holbrook, Morris B. (2000), “The Millennial Consumer in the Texts of Our Times: Experience and Entertainment,” Journal of Macromarketing, 20 (2), pp. 178-192.
55. Hubbert, Amy R. (1995), Customer Co-Creation of Service Outcomes: Effect of Locus of Causality Attributions, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University.
56. Hudson, Laurel Anderson and Julie L. Ozanne (1988), “Alternative Ways of Seeking Knowledge in Consumer Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (March), pp. 508-521.
57. Hui, M. K. and J. E. G. Bateson (1991), “Perceived Control and the Effects of Crowding and Consumer Choice on the Service Experience,” Journal of Consumer Research, 18 (September), pp. 174-184.
58. Jaworski, Bernard and Ajay K. Kohli (1993), “Market Orientation: Antecedents and Consequences,” Journal of Marketing, 57 (July), pp. 53-70.
59. Jensen, R. (1999), The Dream Society: How the Coming Shift From Information to Imagination will Transform Your Business, NY: McGraw-Hill.
60. Johns, Nick (1999), “What Is the Thing Called Service?” European of Journal Marketing, 33 (9/10), pp. 958-973.
61. Jöreskog, Karl G. and Dag Sörbom (1996), LISREL 8: User’s Reference Guide, Scientific Software Internaltional, Inc., Chicago.
62. Kohli, Ajay K. and Bernard J. Jaworski (1990), “Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions, and Managerial Implications,” Journal of Marketing, 54 (2), pp.1-18.
63. Kohli, Ajay K., Bernard J. Jaworski, and Ajith Kumar (1993), “MARKOR: A Measure of Market Orientation,” Journal of Marketing Research, 30 (November), pp. 467-477.
64. Kotler, Phillip (1973), “Atmospheric as a Marketing Tool,” Journal of Retail Marketing, 49 (Winter), pp. 48-64.
65. Laverie, Debra A., Robert E. Kleine, and Susan Schultz Kleine (1993), “Linking Emotions and Values in Consumption Experiences: An Exploratory Study,” Advances in Consumer Research, 20, pp. 70-75.
66. Lincoln, Yvonna S. and Egon G. Guba (1985), Naturalistic Inquiry, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp. 187-220.
67. Martin, Charles L., and Charles A. Pranter (1989) “Compatibility Management: Customer-to-Customer Relationships in Service Environments,” The Journal of Services Marketing, 3 (3), pp.5-15.
68. Martin, Charles L. (1996) “Consumer-to-Consumer Relationships: Satisfaction with Other Consumers’ Public Behavior,” The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 30 (1), pp. 146-169.
69. Martin, Charles L. (1999), “The History, Evolution and Principles of Services Marketing: Poised for the New Millennium,” Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 17 (7), pp. 324-328.
70. Mathwick, Charla, Naresh Malhotra, and Edward Rigdon (2001), “Experiential Value: Conceptualization, Measurement and Application in the Catalog and Internet Shopping Environment,” Journal of Retailing, 77, pp. 39-56.
71. McDonald, Roderick P. (1981), “The Dimensionality of Tests and Items,” British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 34 (May), pp. 100-117.
72. McIver, John P. and Edward G. Carmines (1981), Unidimensional Scaling, Beverly Hills: Sage.
73. Meyer, Wulf-Uwe, Rainer Reisenzein, and Achim Schützwohl (1997), “Toward a Process Analysis of Emotions: The Case of Surprise,” Motivation and Emotion, 21 (3), pp. 251-274.
74. Moneta, Giovanni B. and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1996), “The Effect of Perceived Challenges and Skills on the Quality of Subjective Experience,” Journal of Personality, 64 (2), pp. 275-310.
75. Norman, R. (1983), Service Management, New York: Wiley.
76. Norton, David W. (2003), “Toward Meaningful Brand Experiences,” Design Management Journal, 14 (1), pp. 19-26.
77. Oliver, Richard L. (1980), “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions,” Journal of Marketing Research, 17 (4), pp. 460-469.
78. Oliver, Richard L. (1993), “A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Service Satisfaction: Compatible Goals, Different Concepts,” In T. A. Wartz, D. A. Bowen, and S. W. Brown (Eds), Advances in Services Marketing and Management, 2, pp. 65-85.
79. O'Sullivan, Ellen Lupia and Kathy J Spangler (1998), Experience Marketing : Strategies for the New Millenium, State College, Pa.: Venture Pub.
80. Otto, Julie E. and J.R. Brent Ritchie (1995), “Exploring The Quality of The Service Experience: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis,” Advances in Services Marketing and Management, 4, pp. 37-61.
81. Oxford Dictionary, http://www1.oup.co.uk/elt/oald/bin/oald2/pl
82. Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry (1985) “A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research,” Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall), pp 41-50.
83. Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry (1988) “ SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality,” Journal of Retailing, 64 (1), pp.12-37.
84. Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry (1991), “Understanding Customer Expectations of Service,” Sloan Management Review, 32 (Spring), pp. 39-48.
85. Pine II, B. Joseph and James H. Gilmore (1998), “Welcome To The Experience Economy,” Harvard Business Review, July-August, pp. 97-105.
86. Pine II, B. Joseph and James H. Gilmore (1999), The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre & Every Business A Stage, Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
87. Pullman, Madeleine E. and Michael A. Gross (2004), “Ability of Experience Design Elements to Elicit Emotions and Loyalty Behaviors,” Decision Sciences, 35 (3), pp. 551-578.
88. Reber, Arthur S. (1985), The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England ; New York : Penguin Books.
89. Reisenzein, Rainer (2000), “Exploring the Strength of Association Between the Components of Emotion Syndrome: The Case of Surprise,” Cognition and Emotion, 9 (1), pp. 5-31.
90. Richins, Marsha L. (1997), “Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience,” Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (September), pp 127-146
91. Schlesinger, Leonard A. and James L. Heskett (1991), “Breaking the Cycle of Failure in Services,” Sloan Management Review, Spring, pp. 17-28.
92. Schmitt, Bernd H. (1999), Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customer to Sense, Feel, Think, Act, Relate to Your Company and Brands, New York: The Free Press.
93. Schützwohl, Achim (1998), “Surprise and Schema Strength,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, Learning, Memory and Cognition, 24 (5), pp. 1182-1199.
94. Shoctack, G. L. (1984), “Designing Services That Deliver,” Harvard Business Review, 6 (1), pp. 133-139.
95. Shostack, G. Lynn (1985), “Planning the Service Encounter,” In Czepiel, John A., Michael R. Solomon, and Carol F. Surprenant (Eds), The Service Encounter, Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, pp. 243-254.
96. Solomon, R. L. (1980), “The Opponent-Process Theory of Acquired Motivation,” American Psychologist, 35, pp. 691-712.
97. Solomon, Michael R., Carol Surprenant, John A. Czepiel, and Evelyn G. Gutman (1985), “A Role Theory Perspective on Dynamic Interactions: The Service Encounter,” Journal of Marketing, 49 (Winter), pp. 99-111.
98. Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E. M., and Hans Baumgartner (1998), “Assessing Measurement Invariance in Cross-National Consumer Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, 25(June), pp. 78-88.
99. Sureshchander, G. S., C. Rajendran, and T. J. Kamalanabhan (2001), “Customer Perceptions of Service Quality—A Critique,” Total Quality Management, 12. pp. 111-124.
100. Sureshchander, G. S., C. Rajendran, and R. N. Anantharaman (2002), “The Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction—A Factor Specific Approach,” Journal of Service Marketing, 16 (4), pp. 363-379.
101. Tansik, D. A. and W. L. Smith (2000), “Scripting the Service Encounter,” In J. Fitzsimmons and M Fitzsimmons (Eds), New Service Development—Creating Memorable Experience, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 239-263.
102. Taylor, S. A. and T. Baker (1994), “An Assessment of the Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Formation of Customers’ Purchase Intentions,” Journal of Retailing, 70 (2), pp. 163-178.
103. Taylor, S. A. and J. J. Jr. Cronin (1994), “Modeling Patient Satisfaction and Service Quality,” Journal of Health Care Marketing, 14 (1), pp. 34-44.
104. Teas, K. (1993), “Expectations, Performance, Evaluations and Consumer Perceptions of Quality,” Journal of Marketing, 57 (4), pp. 18-34.
105. Thompson, Craig J., William B. Locander, and Howard R. Pollio (1989), “Putting Consumer Experience Back into Consumer Research: The Philosophy and Method of Existential-Phenomenology,” Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (September), pp. 133-146.
106. Thompson, Craig J., William B. Locander, and Howard R. Pollio (1990), “The Lived Meaning of Free-Choice: An Existential- Phenomenological Description of Everyday Consumer Experience of Contemporary Married Women,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (December), pp. 346-361.
107. Tseng Mitchell M., Ma Qinhai and Chuan-Jun Su (1999), “Mapping Customers' Service Experience for Operations Improvement,” Business Process Management Journal, 5 (1), pp. 50-64.
108. Toffler, Alvin (1970), Future Shock, New York: Random House.
109. Turley, L. W. and Dawn Langkamp Bolton (1999), “Measuring the Affective Evaluations of Retail Service Environments,” Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 19 (1), pp. 31-44.
110. Turley, L. W. and Ronald E. Milliman (2000), “Atmospheric Effects on Shopping Behavior: A Review of the Experimental Evidence,” Journal of Business Research, 49, pp. 193-211.
111. Vanhamme, Joëlle (2000), “The Link Between Surprise and Satisfaction: An Exploratory Research on How Best to Measure Surprise,” Journal of Marketing Management, 16 (6), pp. 565-582.
112. Vanhamme, Joëlle and Dirk Snelders (2002), “ What If You Surprise Your Customers—Will They Be More Satisfied? Findings From a Pilot Experiement,” Advances in Consumer Research, 30, pp. 48.
113. Webster Dictionary, http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary
114. Wolf, M. J. (1999), The Entertainment Economy—How Mega-Media Forces Are Transforming Our Lives, New York: Random House.
115. Wong, Maria Mei-ha and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (1991), “Motivation and Academic Achievement: The Effects of Personality Traits and the Quality of Experience,” Journal of Personality, 59 (3), pp. 539-574.
116. Zeithaml, Valarie A., A. Parasuraman, and Leonard L. Berry (1990), Delivering Quality Service: Perceptions and Expectations, New York: Free Press.
117. Zeithaml, Valarie A., Leonard L. Berry, and A. Parasuraman (1996), “The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality,” Journal of Marketing, 60(April), pp. 31-46.
118. Zaltman, G. (2003), How Customers Think: Essential Insights Into the Mind of The Market, Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0913555081|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[企業管理學系] 學位論文|
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.