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    Title: 台灣專利聯盟(Patent Pool)的可行性探討─以國際產業標準的營運模式為例
    The feasibility analysis of Patent Pool in Taiwan─The Business Model of International Standard
    Authors: 徐弘光
    Hsu, Henry
    Contributors: 劉江彬
    周延鵬

    徐弘光
    Hsu, Henry
    Keywords: 專利聯盟
    標準
    MPEG-2
    授權機制
    產業價值鏈
    Patent pool
    Standard
    MPEG-2
    Licensing
    Product value Chain
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 09:35:24 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來,台灣高科技廠商開始投注大量的心血在於專利申請上,由公告的美國專利數目,台灣專利權人2005年在美獲取專利數已位居美國以外國家的第三位,在這樣的數據下,應該值得驕傲,然若從訴訟案例來看,台灣廠商卻仍明顯處於被指控專利侵權的窘境,在光電產業、光儲存產業、半導體產業、IC設計業等,有相當多的案例說明台灣廠商雖然在專利的數量上已達一定的成效,但營運上卻因為專利議題而障礙重重。
    許多專利聯盟案例的成功,如MPEG LA與DVD 6C都說明了以專利為基礎所產生標準後能帶來的龐大商業利益。使得標準之爭,成為國際級大集團的必爭之地。反觀台灣或是中國,近年來都有許多與標準相關的聯盟產生,但都未能為主流產品所遵循、參與。
    本文藉由MPEG-2 的案例,對於技術、專利、產品、產業的相互關係作一實證的探討,並以國際級跨國公司的智權管理來分析其營運模鏈式。發現推動標準的領導廠商,在標準制訂過程中,積極地參與標準組織、轉化研發成果為專利;在專利的佈局上,也善用專利申請的技巧在各國廣佈專利;積極推廣標準成為主流後,再組成專利聯盟、訂立授權機制。
    國內廠商,若要制訂標準、組成專利聯盟,應建立許多研發的配套機制,例如研發過程中,標準、產品與專利的結、產業上中下游價值鏈的安排、研發聯盟的組成等。
    Hi-tech companies in Taiwan have begun to focus their resources on patent prosecution and the added-value thereafter in recent years. According to the statistics of USPTO, Taiwan ranks 3th on the total patent granted to a foreign origin. This is clearly an achievement to be proud of. However, Taiwan companies are still subject to many infringement challenges, be they in the field of optoelectronics, optical storage, semi-conductor or IC design. Clearly the growing patent ownership has not quite resolved the intellectual property issues these companies must overcome.

    The success of patent pools can bring profit to companies. In cases of MPEG LA and DVD 6C, they makes standard war a critical issue to international companies. On the contrary in Taiwan and China, many alliances aiming to promote standard fail to become standard finally.

    The case of MPEG-2 is analyzed in the aspects of technology, patent, product, industry and also their interactions. In addition, the IP management of the business model is also discussed. We found the leading company of industrial standard are aggressively participating the standard organization and applying patents. In patent application, there were skillfully in filing patents in different countries. After the technology become dominant standards, they start to form patent pool and build the license mechanism.

    Domestic companies should establish the infrastructure of R&D before setting standard and forming patent pool. For example, the connections of standard, product development, patent application, industrial value chain and R&D alliance should be planed and established during R&D process.
    Reference: 一、中文文獻
    <圖書>
     周延鵬,「虎與狐的智慧力─智慧資源規畫9把金鑰」,天下遠見出版有限公司,2006年。
     張平、馬驍,「標準化與知識產權戰略」第二版,知識產權出版社,2005年。
     劉江彬主編,「智慧財產法律與管理─案例評析(二)」,華泰文化,2004年。
     Carl Shapiro&Hal R. Varian,張美惠譯, 「資訊經營法則(Information Rules)」,時報出版社,2003年。
    <論文期刊>
     何愛文,「論專利法制與競爭法制之關係─從保護專利權之正當性談起」,台大法研所博士論文,2003年。
     李兆國,「標準制訂組織及標準專利權之爭議」,國立交通大學碩士論文,2003年12月。
     李素華,「專利及專門技術授權與公平法規範─研析審理技術授權協議案件處理準則」,資策會科法中心,2001年。
     周延鵬,「序列2:建構產業結構連結的智慧財產權環境」,「創新智慧資源規劃,擴展全球競爭優勢」,2004年8月。
     周延鵬,「序列8:解析智慧財產不良的原因」,「創新智慧資源規劃,擴展全球競爭優勢」,2004年9月。
     周延鵬,「序列12:優質佈署智慧財產」,「創新智慧資源規劃,擴展全球競爭優勢」,2004年10月。
     周延鵬,「序列13:智慧財產權的產業結構化」,「創新智慧資源規劃,擴展全球競爭優勢」,2004年11月。
     周延鵬,「序列49: 研發聯盟與智慧財產」,「創新智慧資源規劃,擴展全球競爭優勢」,2005年。
     周延鵬,「中國知識產權戰略試探-一件中國專利將等於或大於一件美國專利的經濟價值」,政大智慧財產評論,第二卷,第一期,2004年4月。
     張聖怡,「由飛利浦光碟授權案探討專利聯合授權的法律爭議」,智慧財產權管理,2001年6月。
     張聖怡,「技術移轉行為報告─以專利聯盟為重點」,資策會科法中心,2001年。
    二、英文文獻
    <圖書>
     Cargill, Carl F. “Information Technology Standardization- Theory, Process, and Organizations”, Digital Press, 1989.
     Gawer, Annabelle. and Michael A. Cusumano, “Platform Leadership: How Intel, Microsoft, and Cisco Drive Industry Innovation”, Harvard Business School Press; 1st edition (April 29, 2002).
     Geihs, Kurt., Wolfgang Konig and Falk von Westarp, “Information Age Economy - Standardization, Infrastructure, and Applicaitions”, Physica Verlag, 2002.
     Goldstein, Larry M. and Brian N. Kearsey, “Technology Patent Licensing: An International Reference on 21st Century Patent Licensing, Patent Pools and Patent Platforms”, Aspatore Books, 2004.
     Grindley, Peter.“Framework of Standards Strategy: Establishing Standards and Maximizing Profit”, Standards, Strategy, and Policy, Oxford University Press, 1995.
     Haskell, Barry G., Atul Puri, and Arun N. Netravali, “Digital Video: An Introduction to MPEG-2, International Thomson Publishing, 1997.
     Jakobs, Kai. “Information Technology Standards and Standardization: A Global Perspective”, Idea Group Publishing, 2000.
     Leveque, Francois. “Standards and Standards-setting processes in the field of the environment”, Standards, Innovation and Competitiveness, Edward Elgar Publishing Company, 1995.
     Libicki, Martin C. “Information Technology Standards”, Digital Press, 1995.
    <期刊>
     Chiariglione, Leonardo. ”The MPEG (Motion Pictures Experts Group) generation New information-age elements” ,ISO BULLETIN SEPTEMBER 2000.
     Clark, Jeanne., Joe Piccolo, Brian Stanton, Karin Tyson, “PATENT POOLS: A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF ACCESS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY PATENTS?”, United States Patent and Trademark Office, December 5, 2000.
     Curran, Patrick D. “Standard-Setting Organizations: Patents, Price Fixing, and Per Se Legality”, 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 983, Summer 2003.
     FUTA, BARYN S. (FTC/DOJ Hearing), STATEMENT OF BARYN S. FUTA, CEO and Manager, MPEG LA, LLC. “Before The United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division and the Federal Trade Commission Joint Hearings on Competition and Intellectual Property Law and Policy in the Knowledge-Based Economy.” ”Patent Pools and Cross-Licensing: When Do They Promote or harm Competition?”, April 17, 2002.
     KLEIN, JOEL I. Acting Assistant Attorney General, “Business Review Letter: Proposal for Joint Licensing of Patents Essential for Meeting Video Technology Standard Used in Electronics and Broadcast Industries”, Antitrust Division, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, June 26, 1997.
     Knee, Mike. ”MPEG Video”, Snell&Wilcox, March 2002.
     Merges, Robert P. “Institutions for Intellectual Property Transactions: The Case of Patent Pools”, Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati Professor of Law and Technology & University of California at Berkeley (Boalt Hall) School of Law, August, 1999.
     Mueller, Janice M. “PATENTING INDUSTRY STANDARDS.” 34 J. Marshall L. Rev. 897, 2001.
     Patterson, Mark R. “Inventions, Industry Standards, and Intellectual Property”, 17 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 1043, Summer 2002.
     Shapiro, Carl and Hal R. Varian, “The Art of Standards Wars”, California Management Review,; 41, 2; ABI/INFORM Global, Winter 1999.
     U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission, “Antitrust Guidelines for the licensing of Intellectual Property”, April 6, 1995.
     Watanabe, Hiroshi. “ Patent Licensing of Standardized Technologies through a Patent Pool”, NTT Technical Review, Vol. 3 No. 3 Mar. 2005.
    <標準>
     Committee Draft, ”INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY - GENERIC CODING OF MOVING PICTURES AND ASSOCIATED AUDIO”, Recommendation H.262, ISO/IEC 13818-2 , November 5, 1993.
     “ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 Procedures for the technical work”, Fifth edition, 2004.
     “INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION ORGANISATION INTER- NATIONALE DE NORMALISATION ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 CODING OF MOVING PICTURES AND ASSOCIATED AUDIO” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N0801, 13 November 1994.
     INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO/IEC 13818-1, “Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems ”, Second edition, 2000-12-01
     INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO/IEC 13818-2, “Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio
    information: Video”, Second edition, 2000-12-15
     INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO/IEC 13818-3, “Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information — Part 3: Audio”, Second edition, 1998-04-15
    三、日文文獻
    <圖書>
     米滿潤,「MPEG技術」,Toricaps Publishing, 1993.
    四、網站資料
     HTMP (Hypertext Markup Language)首頁
    http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/ (last visited at 2006/1/15)
     ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 首頁http://www.iso.org/iso/en/ISOOnline.frontpage (last visited at 2006/1/15)
     ISO 之MPEG 簡介網頁http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/prods-services/popstds/mpeg.html (最後造訪 2006/1/15)
     MPEG系列簡介http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/MPEG-2 (最後造訪2005/11/5)
     MPEG 簡介(MPEG 之父Chiariglione)
    http://www.chiariglione.org/mpeg/about_mpeg.htm(最後造訪2005/11/5)
     MPEG LA授權合約
    http://www.mpegla.com/m2/m2-agreement.cfm (最後造訪2005/11/28)
     MPEG-LA授權說明,MPEG-2 Attachment 1
    http://www.mpegla.com/m2/ (最後造訪2005/11/5)
     Sun Microsystems Java 首頁http://java.com/zh_tw/ (最後造訪 2006/1/15)
     USPTO 美國專利商標局之專利聯盟說明網頁
    http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/com/speeches/01-06.htm(最後造訪 2006/1/15)
     資策會科法中心90年度研究報告
    http://stlc.iii.org.tw/articles/Science/90.htm#(最後造訪 2006/1/15)
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    91359031
    94
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0913590311
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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