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    Title: 關係鑲嵌性與子公司興業導向關係之研究
    The Relationship between Relational Embeddedness and Subsidiary’s Entrepreneurial Orientation
    Authors: 蔡政安
    Tsai, Cheng-An
    Contributors: 溫肇東
    蔡政安
    Tsai, Cheng-An
    Keywords: 關係鑲嵌性
    創業精神
    公司興業精神
    社會網絡
    多國企業子公司
    relational embeddedness
    entrepreneurship
    cioporate entrepreneurship
    social netwok
    multinational enterprise subsidiary
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 09:34:17 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 創業精神的研究對象概可分為新創企業及已奠基廠商,本研究是關注已奠基廠商的創業行為研究,稱為公司興業精神研究。此研究的主軸是興業精神行為模式,此模式是以興業導向衡量公司興業精神,主要在探討公司興業精神與廠商績效的關聯,過去二十多年來在許多學者的努力下已有豐碩的理論發展與實證成果。然此類研究也遇到發展瓶頸,因而學者建議此類研究應往國際化活動或是結合社會網絡觀點發展。
    本研究是以興業精神行為模式為基礎,結合社會網絡觀點中的關係鑲嵌性概念,經由文獻回顧歸納出影響多國企業子公司興業精神的關係鑲嵌性包括母子公司間公司鑲嵌性、顧客關係鑲嵌性、供應商關係鑲嵌性及政府單位關係鑲嵌性,探討不同關係鑲嵌性與多國企業子公司興業導向的關聯。
    經由個案訪談及問卷調查方法,對台灣企業在大陸子公司的230位經理人進行調查,以統計方法檢定各項假說,並再對未符合預期的假說進行較深入探索性分析,研究結果發現:(1)多國企業子公司興業導向與顧客關係鑲嵌性有導U字型關聯,(2)多國企業子公司興業導向與供應商關係鑲嵌性有導U字型關聯,(3)多國企業子公司興業導向與政府單位關係鑲嵌性無關聯,(4)多國企業子公司興業導向與母子公司間關係鑲嵌性有正向關聯。此結果顯示在社會網絡理論中的重要觀點:「平衡網絡」或是「過度鑲嵌」,會在多國企業子公司的興業精神中發生,換言之,本研究證實與顧客或供應商過度鑲嵌時,會不利於子公司興業精神行為。
    本研究同時也探討環境中的政策不確定性、產業不確定性及競爭不確定性與子公司興業導向的關聯,研究結果顯示:(5)多國企業子公司興業導向與政策不確定性有正向關聯,(6)多國企業子公司興業導向與產業不確定性無關聯,(7)多國企業子公司興業導向與競爭不確定性有正向關聯。研究結果顯示:在面對政策上的不確定或是競爭上的不確定時,多國企業子公司會發揮更高的興業精神來因應此環境下的變動。
    最後,本研究依理論架構與實證發現,提出研究的理論貢獻、實務意涵及後續研究的建議,使未來研究能彌補理論發展或是實證研究的不足。
    Research on corporate entrepreneurship(CE) has grown rapidly over the past decades. Both scholars and practitioners remain interested in studying and better understanding CE(Ireland, Kuratko & Covins, 2002).CE has bees viewed as the driver of new business and economic growth within on-going enterprises as achieved through innovativeness, proactiveness, risk-taking(Miller, 1983; Covin & Slevin, 1989e), new business venturing (Burgelman, 1983b, Guth & Ginsberg, 1990; Zahra, 1995), self-renewal(Guth & Ginsberg, 1990; Zahra, 1995; Shama & Chrisma, 1999), opportunity pursuit(Stevenson & Jarillo, 1990; Shane & Vankataraman, 2000), etc. CE can be important not only for small and medium size enterprises but also for large corporation(Antocic & Hisrich, 2001).
    The previous research mainly focused on the relationship between CE and firm performance and generated an study axial of entrepreneurship behavior model that used measures as the firm entrepreneurial orientation(Covin & Slevin, 1989, 1991; Zahra, 1996,1996; Lumpkin & Dess, 1996). Although this kind of research has come out with valuable theoretical concepts and rich empirical results, it till encounters the bottleneck of research. Some scholars suggested that CE research should be extended to international business activities or include the social network perspective(Zehra et. al. , 2003).
    Approximately 15 years ago, research on networks emerged as an important new era of inquiring within the field of entrepreneurship, but published papers on journals were relatively few and mainly focused on the development and consequences of networks in the new venture creation process, or focused on small medium-sized firms(Hoang & Antocic, 2003). There was lack of the network perspective research on the established firm in the field of entrepreneurship.
    This research extended entrepreneurship into international activities and conducted an empirical study on multinational enterprise’s subsidiaries with relational embeddedness of social network perspective. Through the literature review and case study, we generated a research framework and a set of hypothesis which described the relationships between relational embeddedness and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation. We collected data and used statistical tool to verify the hypothesis. Besides, we conducted an exploratory analysis on some field of what hypotheses were not supported to further understand how relational embeddedness influence the entrepreneurial behavior in the subsidiaries of multinational enterprises.
    This research finds that (1)there exists the inverse U shape relationship between the customer relational embeddedness and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation, (2)there exists the inverse U shape relationship between the supplier relational embeddedness and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation, (3)there exists no relationship between government relational embeddedness and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation, (4)there exists the positive association between the mother-subsidiary relational embeddedness and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation. This results imply that the important phenomenon of balance network or over embeddedness be exactly happen in the filed of subsidiary’s entrepreneurial behavior. Our study verified that over embeddedness will negatively influence the entrepreneurship of subsidiary, especially over embeddedness with customers or suppliers.
    This research also searched the relationship between the environmental uncertainties and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation. This result finds that (5) there exists positive association between the policy uncertainty and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation, (6) there exists non-association between the industry uncertainty and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation,(7) there exists positive association between the competitive uncertainty and subsidiary’s entrepreneurial orientation. This imply the subsidiary will advance his entrepreneurial behavior to overcome the environmental uncertainty or pursuit the business opportunities in the dynamic change.
    Finally this research proposed the theoretical contribution, practitioner implications and further research suggestions
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