Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Topic-comment Structures in Chinese EFL Learners' Interlanguage
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-17 16:24:17 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||主題-評論結構(topic-comment)在主題顯著(topic prominent)的語言(如中文)扮演十分重要的角色,尤其是在描述第二語言學習者的中介語時特別重要．但是有關研究,對於中國學生在學習英文時產生的中介語,並沒有對主題-評論結構提供全面且確切的描述．本研究旨在探討中國學生學習英文時所產生的中介語之主題-評論結構, 運用三種測驗來引出中介語—文法判定測驗, 引導寫作測驗, 及翻譯測驗．受試者包含台灣區域位於台北的三所國中挑選的94位國二生,以國一期末考英文成績分為三組．此外,並於政大語視中心挑選14位以英語為母語的外籍生作為本研究的控制組．本研究探討的四種主題-評論結構是由中英文主題結構對比中所產生的, 分別為主題省略(topic drop), 主題移前(topicalization), 主題置左(left-dislocation), 及雙主詞結構(double-subject construction)．本研究所運用的中介語之理論架構是參考三種第二外語習得理論所發展出來的, 分別為第一語言影響(L1 influence), 普遍語法(universal grammar)的存在, 以及附屬集合理論(the Subset Principle)． 研究結果顯示, 第一語言轉換(L1 transfer)在所有程度的學生的中介語當中都十分普遍, 但是普遍語法只有在程度最高的學生的中介語較為明顯．因此本研究推論中介語系統內部運作過程包含三階段, 開始為第一語言轉換, 接著是第一語言轉換及普遍語法並存, 最後階段為普遍語法．|
The role that the topic-comment structure plays in a topic prominent language such as Chinese is very important when it comes to SLA learners’ interlanguage. However, the related research has not provided a comprehensive framework in describing topic structures of Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage. The purpose of this study is to analyze the topic structures in Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage elicited by three tasks—the grammaticality judgment task, the guided writing task, and the translation task. The subjects include 94 junior high school students chosen from three separate schools in Taipei, Taiwan, and they were divided into three proficiency levels. In addition, 14 native speakers from the language center of NCCU served as the control group. This study investigated four topic structures—topic drop, topicalization, left-dislocation, and double-subject construction—which were determined by a comparative study of Chinese and English topic structures. The current theoretical framework of interlanguage operation is developed from three SLA perspectives—L1 influence, the existence of universal grammar (UG), and the subset principle. Results indicated that L1 transfer was prevalent in all proficiency levels but UG was only obvious in the most advanced level. It was thus inferred that the internal operation of interlanguage system should include three stages—first L1 transfer, then L1 transfer and UG, and finally UG.
Ayoun, D. (1996). The subset principle in second language acquisition. Applied Psychoinguisitics, 17, 185-213.
Biber, D., Jounson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
Birner, B.J. (1994). Information status and word order: An analysis of English inversion. Language 70, 233-259.
Brooks, N. (1960). Language and language learning. New York: Harcourt Brace and World.
Chafe, W. (1976). Giveness, contrastiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics and point of view. In C.Li(Eds.), Subject and topic(pp.27-55). New York: Academic Press.
Chen, S.J.(1983). Junior high English lesson planning. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of language: Its nature and use. New York: Praeger.
Chu, C.C. (1998). A discourse grammar of Mandarin Chinese. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
Cook, V. (1985). Chomsky’s universal grammar and second language acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 6.1, 2-18.
Corder, S. (1967). The significance of learner’s errors. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 5, 160-170.
Corder, S. (1981). Error analysis and interlanguage. Oxford University Press.
Crookes, G. (1991). Second language speech production research: A methodological oriented review. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13:2, 113-132.
Ellis, R. (1991). Grammaticality judgments and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13, 161-186.
Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. (1995). Interpretation task for grammar teaching. TESOL QUARTERLY, 29:1, 87-107.
Finer, D. & Broselow, E. (1986). Second language acquisition of reflexive binding. Proceedings of the North Eastern Linguistic Society, 16, 154-168.
Flynn, S. (1987). A parameter-setting model of L2 acquisition: Experimental studies in anaphora. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Fotos, S. & Ellis, R. (1991). Communicating about grammar—A task-based approach. TESOL QUARTERLY, 25:4, 605-628.
Fries, C. (1945). Teaching and learning English as a foreign language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Fuller, J. & Gundel.J. (1987). Topic prominence in interlanguage. Language Learning, 37, 1-18.
Green, C-F. (1996). The origins and effects of topic-prominence in Chinese-English interlanguage.International-Review-of-Applied-Linguistics-in-Language- Teaching (IRAL), 34(2), 119-34.
Henning, G. (1987). A guide to language testing—Development-evaluation-research. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publisher.
Huang, C. T. J. (1984a). On the typology of zero anaphora. Language research, 20, 85-105.
Huang, C. T. J. (1984b). On the distribution and reference of empty pronouns. Linguistic Inquiry 15, 531-574.
Huang, C. T. J. (1989). Pro-drop in Chinese: A generalized controlled theory. In O. Jaeggli & K.J.Safir (Eds.), The null subject parameter. Dorecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Huang, C.T.(1992). Topic-prominence and morphosyntactic parameter in Chinese. Dissertation, University of South California.
Huang, L.H.(2002). A corpus-based study of topic structures in Chinese and English Spoken Texts. Unpublished manuscript.
Huebner, T. (1983). A longitudinal analysis of the acquisition of English. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.
James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use—Exploring error analysis. Longman: London and New York.
Jin, H.G. (1994). Topic-prominence and subject-prominence in L2 acquisition: Evidence of English-to Chinese typological transfer. Language learning, 44-1, 101-122.
Kellerman, E.(1985). If at first you do succeed…In S. Gass and C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass.:Newbury House.
Krashen, S. and H. Seliger. (1975). The essential characteristics of formal instruction. TESOL Quarterly 9, 173-83.
Lado, R. (1957). Linguistics across cultures. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Larsen-Freeman, D & Long, M.H. (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. London and New York: Longman.
Laurel, G.C.(1988). Second language acquisition, in W.O’Grandy and M.Dobrovolsky (Eds.), Contemporary linguistic analysis: An introduction. Taipei: The Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Levenston, E. (1971). Over-indulgence and under-representation: Aspects of mother tongue interference, in G. Nickel (Eds.), Papers in contrastive analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Li, C., and S. Thompson.(1976). Subject and topic: A new typology of language, in C. Li (eds.) Subject and topic (pp457-490). New York: Academic Press.
Li, C., and S. Thompson.(1981). Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkely University of California Press.
Liao, H.T. (1998). An experimental study of topic-prominence and pro-drop in second language acquisition of Chinese. Master Thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei: Taiwan.
Lightbown, P.M., & Spada, N. (1990). Focus-on-form and corrective feedback in communicative language teaching—Effects on second language learning. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12, 429-448.
Lightbown, P.M., & Spada, N. (1999). Instruction, first language influence, and developmental readiness in second language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 83, 1-22.
Lococo, V.(1976). A comparison of three methods for the collection of L2 data: Free composition, translation, and picture description. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 8, 59-86.
Long, M. (1983). Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of the research. TESOL Quarterly 17, 359-82.
Lzumi, S., & Lakshmanan, U. (1998). Learnability, negative evidence and the L2 acquisition of the English passives. Second Language Research, 14:1, 62-101.
Nemser, W. (1971). Approximative systems of foreign language learners. International Journal of applied linguistics, 92, 115-23.
Ou, S-J. (1997). Influence of topic prominence in Chinese on the acquisition of English passives. He-Chun Scholar’s Paper (和春日報), 6, 67-74.
Ou, H.C. (1998). An experimental study of the pro-drop parameter in adult second language acquisition. Master Thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei: Taiwan.
Ringbom, H.(1992). On L1 transfer in L2 comprehension and L2 production. Language Learning, 42:1, 85-112.
Rutherford, W.A.(1983). Language typology and language transfer. In S.M. Garry, & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp.358-370). Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.
Rutherford, E.A. (1989). Interlanguage and pragmatic word order. In S. Gass and J. Schachter (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition (pp.163-182). Cambridge University Press.
Sasaki, M. (1990). Topic prominence in Janpanese EFL students’ existential constructions. Language Learning, 40:3, 337-368.
Schachter.J. & Rutherford.W.(1979). Discourse function and language transfer. Working Papers on Bilingualism 19, 3-12.
Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 209-30.
Selinker, L. (1983). Language transfer. In S.M. Garry, & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp.358-370). Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House Publishers.
Shih, M.L.(1999). Second language acquisition of Chinese topic constructions by English and Japanese-speaking learners. Master Thesis, National Chung Cheng University, Jiayi: Taiwan.
Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness raising and the second language learner. Applied Linguistics, 2, 159-168.
Sharwood Smith, M. (1991). Speaking to many minds: On the relevance of different types of language information for the L2 learner. Second Language Research, 7:2, 118-132.
Sharwood Smith, M. (1993). Input enhancement in instructed SLA—theoretical bases.
Spada, N. (1997). Form-focused instruction and second language acquisition: A review of classroom and laboratory research. Language Teaching, 30, 73-87.
Tomasello, M., & Herron, C. (1988a). Down the garden path: Inducing and correcting overgeneralization in the foreign language classroom. Applied Psycholinguistics, 9, 237-246. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 169-179.
Tomasello, M., & Herron, C. (1988b). Feedback for language transfer errors—The garden path technique. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 11, 385-395.
Trahey, M., & White, L. (1993). Positive evidence and preemption in the second language classroom. Studies in second language acquisition, 15, 181-204.
Tsao, F.F. (1979). A functional study of topics in Chinese: The first step towards discourse analysis. Taipei, Taiwan: Student Book Company Limited.
Wexler, K., & Manzini, M.R. (1987). Parameters and leanability in binding theory. In T. Roeper & E. Williams (Eds.), Parameter setting (pp.41-76). Dordrecht: D.Reidel.
White, L. (1989a). Universal grammar and second language acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
White, L. (1989b). The principle of adjacency in second language acquisition: Do L2 learners observe the subset principle? In S. Gass and J. Schachter (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition (pp.134-158). Cambridge University Press.
White, L. (1991). Adverb placement in second language acquisition: Some effects of positive and negative evidence in the classroom. Second Language Research, 7, 133-61.
White, L., Nina, S., Lightbown, P.M., and Ranta, L. (1991). Input enhancement and L2 question formation. Applied Linguistics, 12:4, 416-432.
Xiao, Y. (1998). An investigation of the syntactic development of school-age Chinese speaking children learning English: The role of topic prominence. Dissertation, University of Hawaii.
Yip, V. (1995a). Interlanguage and learnability: From Chinese to English. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Yip, V. (1995b). I-interlanguage and typology: The case of topic prominence. In L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & L. Eubank (Eds.), Current state of intetlanguage. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Yuan, B. (1992). The asymmetric resetting of the non-empty topic parameter by Chinese speaking learners of English. Edinburgh Working Papers in Applied Linguistics 3, 1-13.
Yuan, B. (1997). Asymmetry of null subjects and null objects in Chinese speakers’ L2 English. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19:4, 467-497.
Zhang, S.I. (1987). A study of interference of the subjectless sentences in Chinese. English Teaching, 11:3, 69-84.
Zobl, H. (1980). Developmental and transfer errors: Their common basis and (possibly) differential effects on subsequent learning.
Zobl, H. (1984). Cross-language generalizations and the contrastive dimension of the interlanguage hypothesis. In Davies, A.C.C. and A. Howatt (Eds.), Interlanguage. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0090555014|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[語言學研究所] 學位論文|
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.