English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 11 |  Items with full text/Total items : 88866/118573 (75%)
Visitors : 23552550      Online Users : 212
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/33367


    Title: Form-function Mappings in the Acquisition of If-conditionals: A Corpus-based Study
    以語料庫為本對英語條件句形式功能對應習得之研究
    Authors: 柯羽珊
    Ke,Yu-shan
    Contributors: 張郇慧
    Claire Hsun-huei Chang
    柯羽珊
    Ke,Yu-shan
    Keywords: 學習者語料庫
    第二語言習得
    條件句
    英語為外語學習
    形式功能對應
    learner corpus
    second language acquisition
    conditionals
    EFL
    form-function mappings
    Date: 2004
    Issue Date: 2009-09-17 16:24:02 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究旨在探討以中文為母語之人士如何學習英語條件句,及其在習得時所遭遇之困難及相關原因。本文除對英語條件句之分類方式做詳盡介紹外,並嘗試以形式功能對應之理論架構,研究其習得之順序,並利用『錯誤分析』區分出條件句之動詞各類錯誤的誤用形式及原因。本研究語料來源為包含一百萬字,以電腦輔助建立錯誤標記之『中國學習者英語語料庫』。
    研究結果發現,外語學習者之習得順序為一形式功能對應之過程,具較多形式或功能內涵者愈晚且愈難習得,符合功能認知模式的預測。 中文學習者的錯誤特徵為添加及省略,原因為過度矯正(hypercorrection)及過度類化(overgeneralization)。學習者最大的困難來自對條件句動詞變化規則不熟悉、形式及功能的複雜性、以及對應失敗的結果。本論文建議未來研究方向可深入探討時間指涉與假設程度對條件句使用之影響。
    Issues of conditionals have been highlighted for a long time, but the focus was seldom fixed on acquisition, particularly for L2. The determinate features of tense, mood and modality are interwoven in the conditional construction, thus resulting in an insurmountable obstacle for L2 learners. However, the factors impede acquisition have never been satisfactorily treated. Therefore, this paper attempts to explore the L2 developmental sequence, and to probe the error characteristics of acquiring if-conditionals.
    Disengaging the expression of conditionality into two dimensions: temporality and hypotheticality, we identified the features of syntactic forms and semantic functions of different conditional types, and created a new scheme to account for their mapping, on which the difficulty levels of acquisition were inferred. In contrast to the previous studies on the grounds of markedness theories, this research described the acquisition of conditionals in a Functional-Cognitive Model. Furthermore, the factors of difficulties were examined via an error analysis.
    The targets are Chinese English learners, who were well-known to face great problems in expressing conditionals. The data was searched from CLEC (Chinese Learner English Corpus), a big-scale corpus consisting of roughly 1,000,000 words with error tags.
    The investigation on the acquisition sequence and error patterns shows: (1) the acquisition order parallels to the prediction on the form-function mapping underpinnings: those with heavy content load and complex lexical shapes are acquired later (2) the two prominent misuses of the Chinese learners are addition and omission, resulted from hypercorrection and oversimplification. It was concluded that their difficulties could be ascribed to unfamiliarity of rules, complexities of forms and functions, and their mapping failure. Hence, this present work serves to provide some explanatory accounts, in a hope to unveil the mystery of the arduousness of acquiring conditionals, contribute to the tightening of acquisition theorizing and shed new insights into pedagogical growth.
    Reference: Amidon, A. (1976). Children’s understanding of sentences with contingent relations: why are temporal and conditional connectives so difficult? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 22 (3), 423-437.
    Athanasiadou, A., & R. Dirven (1997). On conditionals again. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Bofman. (1989). Attainment of syntactic and morphological accuracy by advanced language learners. SSLA, 11, 17-34.
    Bates, E., & B. MacWhinney. (1989). Functionalism and the competition model. In B. MacWhinney & E. Bates (Eds.), The crosslinguistic study of sentence processing (pp. 3-73). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Berent, G. P. (1985). Markedness considerations in the acquisition of conditional sentences. Language Learning, 35, 337-373.
    Bloom, L. M. Lahey, L. Hood,K. Lifer, & K. Fiess. (1980). Complex sentences: Acquisition of syntactic connectives and the meaning relations they encode. Journal of Child Language, 7, 235-261.
    Bloom, A. H. (1981). The linguistic shaping of thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Bloom, A. H. (1984). Caution - The words you use may affect what you say: A response to Au. Cognition, 17, 275-287.
    Bowerman, M. (1979). The acquisition of complex sentences. In P. Fletcher & M. Garman (Eds.), Language Acquisition, (pp.285-305). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bowerman, M. (1986). First steps in acquiring conditionals. In E.C. Traugott, A. ter Meulen, J.S. Reilly, & C.A. Ferguson (Eds.), On conditionals, (pp.285-307). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Braidi, S.M. (1999). The acquisition of second language syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brown, R. (1973). A first Language: The early stages. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
    University Press.
    Bull, W. (1960). Time, tense, and the verb: A study in theoretical and applied linguistics, with particular attention to Spanish. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Cancino, H., E.J. Rosansky, & J. Schumann. (1978). The acquisition of English negatives and interrogatives by native Spanish speakers. In E.M. Hatch (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition: A Book of Reading, (pp. 207-30).
    Celce-Murcia, M., & D. Larsen-Freeman. (1999). The grammar book (2nd ed.). New York: Heinle & Heinle.
    Chou, C.L. (2000). Chinese speakers’ acquisition of English conditionals: Acquisition order and L1 transfer effects. Second Language Studies 19(1), 57-98.
    Comrie, B. (1986). Conditionals: A typology. In E. C. Traugott, A., Meulen, J. S. Reilly, & C. A. Ferguson (Eds.), On conditionals, (pp. 77-99). Cambridge: Cambridge University.
    Cook, V.J. (1993). Linguistics and second language acquisition. Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    Corder, S. P. (1974). Error Analysis. In J. P. B. Allen and S. Pit Corder (Eds.) Techniques in Applied Linguistics (pp. 122-154.). London: Oxford University Press.
    Covitt, R.I. (1976). Some problematic grammar areas for ESL teachers. Unpublished master’s thesis, UCLA.
    Cromer, R. (1974). The development of language and cognition: The cognition hypothesis. In B. Foss. (Ed.), New perspectives in child development. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Crouch, R. (1993). Tense in simple conditionals. Proceedings of the 9th Amsterdam Colloquium, p.133-146.
    Dulay, H., M. Burt, & D. Krashan. (1982). Language Two. Rowley: Newbury House.
    Eckman, F. (1977). Markedness and the contrastive analysis hypothesis. Language Learning, 27,315-330.
    Eckman, F. (1996). A functional-typological approach to second language acquisition theory. In W, C. Ritchie & J.K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp.195-211). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Fujii, S.Y. (1993). The use and learning of clause-linkage: Case studies in Japanese and English conditionals. (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1993).
    Fulcher, Glenn. (1991). Conditionals revisited. ELT Journal ,45 (2), 164-68.
    Gordon, D. (1985). The marking of conditionality in one learner’s interlanguage: A semantic analysis. Working papers, Department of English as a Second Language, University of Hawaii, Manoa 4(1), 77-102.
    Granger, S. (1998). The computer learner corpus: A versatile new source of data for SLA research. In S. Granger (Ed.), Learner English on computer. Longman.
    Hasse, I. (1988). Temporafolge und Bedingungstyp im konditionalen Satzgefuge. In D. Mindt (Ed.) EDV in der Angewandten Linguistik: Ziele—Methoden—Ergebnisse. Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main, (pp. 69-76).
    Haiman, J. (1978). Conditionals are Topics. Language 54(3), 564-589.
    Halliday, M. & R. Hasan. (1976). Cohesion in English. London:Longman.
    Hill, L .A. (1960). The sequence of tenses with If clauses. Language Learning 10(3), 165-178.
    Hwang, M. (1979). A semantic and syntactic analysis of if-conditionals. Unpublished master’s thesis, UCLA.
    James, C. (1998). Errors in language learning and use: Exploring error analysis. London: Longman.
    James, D. (1982). Past tense and the hypothetical: A cross-linguistic study. Studies in Language 6(3), 375-403.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1986). Conditionals and mental models. In E.C. Traugott, A. ter Meulen, J.S. Reilly, & C.A. Ferguson (Eds.), On conditionals, pp55-76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Katis, D. (1997). The emergence of conditionals in child language: Are they really so late? In A. Athanasiadou & R. Dirven (Eds.). On conditionals again, (pp. 355-387). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Kuczaj, S. & M. Daly. (1979). The development of hypothetical reference in the speech of young children. Journal of Child Language 6, 563-579.
    Lardiere, D. (1992). On the linguistic shaping of thought: Another response to Alfred Bloom. Language in Society 21 (2), 231-51.
    Leech, G.. (1987). Meaning and the English verb (2nd ed). London: Longman.
    Lord, C. (2002). Are subordinate clauses more difficult? In J. Bybee & M. Noonan (Eds.), Complex sentences in grammar and discourse, (pp 224-233).
    Lyon, J. (1977). Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Maule, D. (1988). ‘Sorry, but if he comes, I go’: Teaching conditionals. ELT Journal 42 (2), 117-123.
    McCabe, E., S. Evely ,R. Abramovitch ,C. Corter, & D. Pepler. (1983). Conditional statements in young children’s spontaneous speech. Journal of Child Language 10, 253-258.
    Meisel, J.M., H. Clahsen, & M. Pienemann. (1981). On determining developmental stages in natural second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 3, 109-35.
    Mellow, D., & K. Stanley. (2001). Alternative accounts of developmental patterns: Toward a functional-cognitive model of second language acquisition. In K. A. Smith & D. Nordquist (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third Annual High Desert Linguistics Society Conference (pp.51-65). Albuquerque, N.M.: High Desert Linguistics Society.
    Mike, S. (1998). Wordsmith tools (Version 3.0) [Computer softwear]. Mike Scott and Oxford University Press.
    Mindt, D. (1996). English corpus linguistics and the foreign language teaching syllabus. In J. Thomas & M. Short (Eds.), Using Corpora for Language Research. London: Longman.
    Moffie,H.L.(2000). Conditionals. Retrieved May 15, 2003, from http://writing.colostate.edu/assignments/archives/e515/Conditionals1.htm
    Morgan, L., M. Bonamo, & L. Travis. (1995). Negative evidence on negative evidence. Developmental Psychology 31(2): 180-197.
    Nayef, K. & A. Hajjaj. (1997). Errors in English among Arabic speakers: Analysis and remedy, (pp. 129-142). Beirut, Lebanon: York Press and Librainie du Liban.
    Norris, W. (2003). How do we overcome the difficulties of teaching conditionals? Bulletin of Fukuoka International University 9, 39-50.
    O’Grady, W. (1997). Syntactic development. Chicago: Chicago Press.
    Palmer, F.R. (1986). Mood and modality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Palmer, F.R. (1990). Modality and the English modals. Longman.
    Partington, A. (1998). Patterns and meanings: Using corpora for English language research and teaching (pp. 79-88). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Perkins, M.R. (1983). Modal expressions in English. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
    Podlesskaya, Vera Isaakovna. (1997). Syntax and semantics of resumption: Some evidence from Russian conditional conjuncts. Russian Linguistics, 21 (2), 125-155.
    Qui, S., & H, Yang. (2003). Chinese Learner English Corpus. Shanghai: Foreign Language Publisher.
    Quirk, R., S. Greenbaum, N. Leech, & J. Svartvik. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of the English language. London: Longman.
    Reilly, J.S. (1982). The acquisition of conditionals in English. (Doctoral dissertation, UCLA).
    Reilly, J.S. (1986). The acquisition of temporals and conditionals. In E.C. Traugott, A. ter Meulen, J.S. Reilly, & C.A. Ferguson (Eds.), On conditionals (pp. 309-331). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Richards, J.C. & G.P. Sampson (1974). The study of learner English. In J.C. Richards (Ed.), Error Analysis: Perspectives on second language acquisition (pp. 3-18). London: Longman.
    Salsbury, T. (2000). The acquisitional grammaticalization of unreal conditionals and modality in L2 English: A longitudinal perspective. (Doctoral dissertation, Department of Linguistics, Indiana Universtiry, 2000).
    Saxton, M. (2000). Negative evidence and negative feedback: Immediate effects on the grammaticality of child speech. Unpublished Manuscript, University of London, U.K.
    Schachter, C. (1971). Presupposition and counterfactual conditional sentences (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, 1971). Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, A Xerox Company.
    Schachter, C. (1974). An error in error analysis. Language Learning 24, 205-214.
    Schwenter, A. (1998). The pragmatics of conditional marking: Implicature, scalarity, and exclusivity. (Doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, 1998)
    Slobin, I. (1973). Cognitive Prerequisites for the Development of Grammar. In C. A. Ferguson & D. I. Slobin (Eds.), Studies in Child Language Development (pp.175-208). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
    Taylor, G. (1986). Errors and explanations. Applied Lingusitics 7 (2), 144-165.
    Traugott, C., A. Meulen, S. Reilly, & A. Ferguson. (Eds). (1986). On
    conditionals. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
    Wierzbicka, A. (1997). Conditionals and counterfactuals: conceptual primitives and linguistic universals. In A. Athanasiadou & R. Dirven (Eds.). On conditionals again (pp. 15-61). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Wode, H. (1981). Learning a Second Language. Tubingen: Gunter Narr.
    The American Heritage Book of English Usage: A practical and authoritative guide to cotemporary English. (1996). http://www.bartleby.com/64/C001/061.html 2004/3/19
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    語言學研究所
    90555006
    93
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0090555006
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[語言學研究所] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    55500601.pdf75KbAdobe PDF1296View/Open
    55500602.pdf43KbAdobe PDF3998View/Open
    55500603.pdf46KbAdobe PDF1151View/Open
    55500604.pdf97KbAdobe PDF1331View/Open
    55500605.pdf63KbAdobe PDF2317View/Open
    55500606.pdf91KbAdobe PDF5908View/Open
    55500607.pdf181KbAdobe PDF1834View/Open
    55500608.pdf60KbAdobe PDF1446View/Open
    55500609.pdf24KbAdobe PDF1437View/Open
    55500610.pdf57KbAdobe PDF2100View/Open
    55500611.pdf66KbAdobe PDF1434View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback