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    Title: 技術交易搜尋網絡之模擬研究
    A Simulation Study of Technology Transaction Network
    Authors: 歐陽惠華
    Contributors: 吳豐祥
    徐木蘭

    歐陽惠華
    Keywords: 技術搜尋
    技術知識特質
    網絡結構
    searching
    characteristic of technology
    network
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2009-09-11 17:48:23 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在高度競爭的時代,技術交易是廠商取得技術的重要方法之一。隨著智慧財產權法治的規範愈來愈完整,廠商對智慧財產權重要性的體認也逐漸提高,如何在技術市場中搜尋適當的技術交易對象,是許多廠商感到困擾的問題,而其搜尋過程也是技術交易研究領域中較為不足之處。因此本研究擬針對不同的技術交易情境下,如何成功地搜尋到交易的對象來進行研究。
    技術的交易可以視為是知識商品的交易,目前技術搜尋的研究多以策略決策觀點或組織學習的觀點來加以著墨,其結果大多與廠商行為理論相關,對於技術交易搜尋過程的探討仍屬有限。事實上,技術搜尋是買賣雙方與訊息提供者彼此在搜尋過程中的互動行為,主要建立在人與人彼此連接的網絡上。因此,技術知識或資訊在其交易搜尋網絡上的流動可視為一種複雜系統,影響的因素較為複雜。一般而言,傳統的研究方法通常較不易觀察到多個變項對整體研究的影響,若用以探討技術交易的複雜過程,可能無法完整呈現技術交易搜尋過程的全貌;再者,傳統的研究方法大多依據過去專利、研發投資等數據來進行探討技術搜尋的研究,其研究指標對技術搜尋的適用性也值得考量。
    本研究以複雜調適系統為理論基礎,依據相關理論與個案訪談的結果,來建置電腦模擬系統。模擬模型中包括:自變項—買賣方的搜尋行為,包括有知識累加速率與隨機搜尋兩種,以及與系統環境有關的系統規模、買賣家數數量、技術知識權重等。就交易與否的部分以個案資料假設的交易成功機率加以處理;應變項—特徵路徑長度(交易成功所經過的總agent數)及每個agent被經過的次數,據以在各種設定條件下的系統情境來進行模擬分析。
    本研究結果發現,技術交易系統確實表現出複雜調適理論的特性,例如:非線性、聚集、流動、多樣性等特徵;交易搜尋效率同時受到知識累加速率與隨機搜尋兩種策略行為的影響,搜尋最適條件一般出現在知識累加速率和搜尋隨機機率均為中間值時,其中路徑相依度對交易搜尋效率的影響較知識內隱性明顯。網絡結構的影響,可以從密集性、連結關係與集散性三個面向來描述,搜尋行為影響網絡節結構的形成,知識累加速率高時產生的結構較密集,反之,隨機搜尋的行為對應較分散的結構,而均衡型結構的搜尋效率較佳。總之,本研究結果顯示,於技術交易進行的實務上,若能同時兼顧既有的知識累加速率與擴大原有的路徑,將有利於交易搜尋效率的提升。
    第壹章 緒論 …………………………………………………………………1
    第一節 研究背景與動機 ………………………………………………1
    第二節 研究目的 ………………………………………………………3
    第三節 研究概念 ……………………………………………………… 4
    第四節 模擬系統建置流程 …………………………………………… 4
    第五節 研究範圍 ……………………………………………………… 5
    第六節 研究前提…………………………………………………………6
    第貳章 文獻探討 ……………………………………………………………8
    第一節 技術交易為市場機制 …………………………………………8
    一、無形資產與實體資產 …………………………………………9
    二、技術交易市場 …………………………………………………9
    第二節 技術搜尋 ………………………………………………………11
    一、搜尋策略的內涵 …………………………………………… 12
    二、影響搜尋的相關因素 ……………………………………… 14
    (一)組織學習與網絡關係 …………………………………… 15
    (二)信任的影響 ……………………………………………… 16
    (三)技術交易的信任 ………………………………………… 17
    第三節 網絡的結構與關係 ……………………………………………18
    一、網絡關係的描述 …………………………………………… 18
    二、圖像方式分析 ……………………………………………… 20
    (一)資料分析………………………………………………… 20
    (二)電腦模擬……………………………………………………22
    第四節 技術知識特質 ……………………………………………… 24
    一、技術知識特質 ……………………………………………… 25
    二、技術承接能力與企業技術能力 …………………………… 28
    第五節 複雜理論與應用 …………………………………………… 29
    一、複雜(Complexity)理論 ………………………………… 29
    二、複雜調適系統理論(Complex Adaptive System,CAS) …30
    (一)複雜適應系統理論的發展 ……………………………… 31
    (二)CAS理論的核心思想—適應性造就複雜性……………… 31
    三、CAS的應用…………………………………………………… 33
    第六節 小結 ………………………………………………………… 33
    第參章 研究方法與設計 ………………………………………………… 35
    第一節 研究方法的說明 ………………………………………………35
    一、個案選擇………………………………………………………35
    二、電腦模擬研究…………………………………………………36
    第二節 研究架構 ………………………………………………………37
    第三節 模擬系統建置工具 ………………………………………… 39
    一、 Swarm平台的介紹……………………………………………39
    二、 Swarm Development Group(SDG)的任務 ………………… 41
    三、 Swarm函式庫的介紹 ……………………………………… 41
    四、 模擬程式之設計 …………………………………………… 45
    五、 Swarm Package …………………………………………… 46
    第四節 變項設計與系統規劃 ……………………………………… 52
    第五節 系統運作 ………………………………………………………58
    一、流程圖說明 ………………………………………………… 59
    二、模擬系統的驗效(validation)……………………………66
    第肆章 個案分析 ………………………………………………………… 67
    第一節 個案討論 ………………………………………………………67
    第二節 個案討論……………………………………………………… xx
    第三節 小結 ……………………………………………………………92
    第伍章 結果與討論 ……………………………………………………… 93
    第一節 資料整理與分析………………………………………………93
    第二節 搜尋效率 …………………………………………………… 93
    一、搜尋行為的影響 …………………………………………… 93
    二、知識內隱性的影響 ………………………………………… 99
    三、系統特性之關係 ……………………………………………103
    四、不同交易成功機率之比較 …………………………………103
    第三節 網絡結構(structure)分析 ……………………………… 109
    一、搜尋網絡結構之型態 ………………………………………109
    二、網絡結構分析 ………………………………………………115
    (一)網絡結構的影響…………………………………………115
    (二)系統特性之關係…………………………………………115
    三、不同交易成功機率之比較………………………………… 103
    第三節 命題推導與說明 ……………………………………………144
    (一)技術交易搜尋系統的複雜現象 …………………………144
    (二)技術知識特質對交易搜尋效率之影響 …………………145
    (三)技術知識特質對搜尋網絡之影響 ………………………146
    (四)網絡結構對交易搜尋效率之影響 ………………………147
    (五)交易搜尋行為影響系統環境 ……………………………147
    第四節 理論架構…………………………………………………… 147
    (一)理論架構與主張 …………………………………………147
    (二)相關理論支持 ……………………………………………148
    第陸章 結論與建議 ………………………………………………………149
    一、研究結論 …………………………………………………………149
    二、理論上的貢獻 ……………………………………………………150
    三、實務上的建議 ……………………………………………………150
    四、研究限制 …………………………………………………………151
    五、未來研究發展方向 ………………………………………………152

    參考文獻 ……………………………………………………………………153
    附錄一 訪談問題……………………………………………………………173
    附錄二 訪談逐字稿…………………………………………………………174
    附錄三 交易成功機率為0.5,搜尋行為對路徑特徵長度的影響……… 196
    附錄四 交易成功機率為0.5,知識內隱性對路徑特徵長度的影響…… 197





    表 目 錄

    表 2-1 無形資產與實體資產的差異 ……………………………………… 9
    表 2-2 技術市場與商品市場的比較 …………………………………………10
    表 2-3 有效的交易統治結構 …………………………………………………11
    表 2-4 技術知識特質對知識轉移的影響 ……………………………………27
    表 2-5 生物遺傳概念在遺傳演算法中的對應關係 …………………………28
    表 2-6 技術搜尋系統與理論內容的關係 ……………………………………32
    表 3-1 個案訪談對象表 ………………………………………………………36
    表 3-2 技術搜尋系統的概念與研究變項操作關係………………………… 38
    表 3-2 Swarm and Object-oriented programming的對照 ……………… 43
    表 3-4 本研究所使用的Swarm package …………………………………… 48
    表 3-5 各變項之意涵與影響………………………………………………… 53
    表 3-6 網絡分析指標在技術交易網絡之意涵……………………………… 55
    表 3-7 實驗產出指標說明…………………………………………………… 55
    表 3-8 系統情境參數彙整表 …………………………………………………56
    表 3-9 系統變項情境參數彙整表 ……………………………………………56
    表 3-10 實驗輸入變數之說明 ……………………………………………… 64
    表 3-11 規模900,買賣家數5/5系統的agent被經過網絡分佈 ……………67
    表 4-1 個案一 技術交易情境 …………………………………………………70
    表 4-2 個案二 技術交易情境 …………………………………………………76
    表 4-3 生技醫藥產業交易過程 ………………………………………………76
    表 4-4 電子資訊產業交易過程 ………………………………………………77
    表 4-5 個案三 技術交易情境 …………………………………………………87
    表 4-6 個案四 技術交易情境 …………………………………………………90
    表 4-7 個案五 技術交易情境 ……………………………………………… 92
    表 5-1 交易一次系統成功交易所經過總agent數之比較……………………104
    表 5-2 交易成功機率0.5與1.0差異比較…………………………………… 105
    表 5-3 agent被經過次數分佈與情境對照表 ……………………………… 110
    表 5-4 網絡類型歸納表 …………………………………………………… 114



    圖 目 錄

    圖 1-1 研究概念 ……………………………………………………………… 4
    圖 1-2 模擬系統建置流程 …………………………………………………… 5
    圖 2-1本研究系統在技術交易過程的關係圖示………………………………34
    圖 3-1 研究架構 ………………………………………………………………38
    圖 3-2 Swarm平臺的建模邏輯 ………………………………………………41
    圖 3-3 所示為Swarm activities的整合 …………………………………46
    圖 3-4 TradeObserverSwarm 和TradeModelSwarm 之間的繼承關係 ……50
    圖 3-5 系統運作流程圖 ……………………………………………………… 59
    圖 3-6 買賣方的交易行為過程 ……………………………………………… 60
    圖 3-7 訊息者的行為 ………………………………………………………… 61
    圖 3-8 範例程式起始的畫面 ………………………………………………… 63
    圖 3-9 交易結束的畫面 …………………………………………………… …65
    圖 5-1系統規模400、交易成功機率1.0的條件下,搜尋機率時和
    知識累加速率對路徑特徵長度的同時影響 ………………………… 96
    圖 5-2系統規模900、交易成功機率1.0的條件下,搜尋機率時和
    知識累加速率對路徑特徵長度的同時影響 ……………………………97
    圖5-3系統規模1600、交易成功機率1.0的條件下,搜尋機率時和
    知識累加速率對路徑特徵長度的同時影響 ……………………………98
    圖5-4系統規模400,交易成功機率為1.0,知識權重與知識累加
    兩內隱性變項對路徑特徵長度的同時影響 ……………………………100
    圖5-5系統規模900,交易成功機率為0.5,知識權重與知識累加
    兩內隱性變項對路徑特徵長度的同時影響 ……………………………101
    圖5-6系統規模1600,交易成功機率為0.5,知識權重與知識累加
    兩內隱性變項對路徑特徵長度的同時影響 ……………………………102
    圖 5-7 買方家數/賣方家數 5/5、搜尋機率0.5、交易成功機率1.0
    的條件下,知識累加速率與知識權重對系統規模之關係 ……… 106
    圖 5-8 買方家數/賣方家數 25/25、搜尋機率0.5、交易成功機率1.0
    的條件下,知識累加速率與知識權重對系統規模之關係 ……… 107
    圖 5-9 買方家數/賣方家數 45/5、搜尋機率0.5、交易成功機率1.0
    的條件下,知識累加速率與知識權重對系統規模之關係 ……… 108
    圖 5-10 交易一次系統成功交易所經過總agent數之比較 ……………… 105圖 5-11 密集型-弱連結-低度集散型的網絡結構 ………………………… 113
    圖 5-12 分散型-中度連結-高度集散型的網絡結構…………………………114
    圖 5-13 400系統(5/5),知識權重 0.8 ………………………………… 117
    圖 5-14 400系統(5/5),知識權重0.5 ……………………………………118
    圖5-15 400系統(5/5),知識權重0.2 …………………………………… 119
    圖5-16 400系統(25/25),知識權重0.8 ………………………………… 120
    圖5-17 400系統(25/25),知識權重0.5……………………………………121
    圖5-18 400系統(25/25),知識權重0.2……………………………………122
    圖5-19 400系統(45/5),知識權重0.8 ……………………………………123
    圖5-20 400系統(45/5),知識權重 0.5 ………………………………… 124
    圖5-21 400系統(45/5),知識權重 0.2 ……………………………………125
    圖5-22 900系統(5/5),知識權重 0.8 …………………………………… 126
    圖5-23 900系統(5/5),知識權重 0.5 …………………………………… 127
    圖5-24 900系統(5/5),知識權重 0.2 …………………………………… 128
    圖5-27 900系統(25/25),知識權重 0.8 ………………………………… 129
    圖5-26 900系統(25/25),知識權重 0.5 ………………………………… 130
    圖5-25 900系統(25/25),知識權重 0.2 ………………………………… 131
    圖5-28 900系統(45/5),知識權重 0.8 ……………………………………132
    圖5-29 900系統(45/5),知識權重 0.5 ……………………………………133
    圖5-30 900系統(45/5),知識權重 0.2 ……………………………………134
    圖5-31 1600系統(5/5),知識權重 0.8 ……………………………………135
    圖5-32 1600系統(5/5),知識權重 0.5 ……………………………………136
    圖5-33 1600系統(5/5),知識權重 0.2 ……………………………………137
    圖5-34 1600系統(25/25),知識權重 0.8 …………………………………138
    圖5-35 1600系統(25/25),知識權重 0.5 …………………………………139
    圖5-36 1600系統(25/25),知識權重 0.2 …………………………………140
    圖5-37 1600系統(45/5),知識權重 0.8 ……………………………………141
    圖5-38 1600系統(45/5),知識權重 0.5 ……………………………………142
    圖5-39 1600系統(45/5),知識權重 0.2 ……………………………………143
    圖5-40 系統情境關係圖………………………………………………………147
    圖5-41 理論架構………………………………………………………………148
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    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    90359502
    94
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0903595022
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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