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    题名: 科技心理擁有感、在地知識與科技採用:科技意會觀點
    Psychological ownership, local knowledge, and technology adoption: The perspective of technology sense-making
    作者: 侯勝宗
    Hou,Sheng-Tsung
    贡献者: 吳思華
    Wu,Se-Hwa
    侯勝宗
    Hou,Sheng-Tsung
    关键词: 心理擁有感
    在地知識
    科技意會
    科技採用
    計程車
    科技移轉
    Psychological ownership
    Local knowledge
    Technology sense-making
    Technology adoption
    Taxi
    technology transfer
    日期: 2005
    上传时间: 2009-09-11 17:43:54 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 現代化組織雖然熱衷於導入資訊科技來提升組織競爭力,但研究發現近一半的科技導入最後是以失敗收場;此種不導入科技則組織將失去競爭力、但導入科技後卻達不到預期成效的兩難,是造成組織生產力困境的原因之一。此一企業面對科技採用的兩難困境,引發本論文的研究動機。
    實務中許多科技導入失敗的案例已經說明決定企業是否擁有競爭力不在於組織是否導入科技或使用者如何採用新科技,愈來愈多的研究已證實如何在導入科技後,讓員工願意改變既有的工作習性,並樂於持續地使用科技,且逐漸將科技使用內化成為日常工作實踐,可能更加重要。此外,實務中也常發現組織內的科技使用者在面對相同科技時,往往並不是接受科技,或是拒絕科技的二元採用論;相反地,因為使用者會對科技進行自我詮釋與賦予個人意義,故導致許多不同且有趣的採用類型,甚至可能造成非預期的負面反應與行為。
    過去許多探討個人層次的科技採用研究專注於科技採用者的認知因素對科技接受與否之影響,本論文則專注於科技採用的情感面探討,瞭解使用者對科技的心理擁有感受如何影響採用行為。綜合過往文獻的不足,本論文提出二項主要研究問題:(1) 科技採用是否存在多元化的採用類型?影響原因為何?與 (2) 科技採用者對科技的心理擁有感如何影響科技採用行為與績效?
    針對上述的研究問題,本論文回顧科技採用、科技意會、心理擁有感與在地知識等相關文獻,輔以二階段的研究策略,依序進行個案質化研究的理論建構 (研究一) 與量化假說的理論驗證 (研究二)。首先,研究一以新加坡康福計程車與台灣大車隊計程車為研究個案,藉由瞭解二地的計程車司機如何採用衛星派遣科技之紮根研究,歸納出科技採用者的科技心理擁有感將影響對科技的意會,與使用科技的在地知識類型;其次,科技心理擁有感可藉由以上二者的中介效果,進而影響科技採用型態與採用頻次。本論文由研究一推導出相關的研究假說,以供研究二進行關係驗證。最後,在研究二中,本論文藉由科技心理擁有感、在地知識、科技意會的量表發展與結構方程式統計分析,進行研究一的假說驗證與探討。
    經由數百位計程車司機開車實踐的觀察、訪談與大樣本問卷調查後,本論文發現科技心理擁有感可區分為「我的科技心理擁有感」與「我們的科技心理擁有感」二類屬性;而科技心理擁有感將產生二大類的科技意會類型:「實用認同型科技意會」與「自利專屬型科技意會」,與二大類的在地知識:「近地型在地知識」與「遠地型在地知識」,最後,進而影響科技的多元採用類型與採用績效。
    本論文有系統地利用質性紮根研究進行構念的歸納與分類,發現不同型式的科技心理擁有感、多元科技意會、在地知識與科技採用類型,並建構一個多構念且具完整性的科技採用分析架構與衡量方法。同時,本論文也借用組織行為理論中的心理擁有感理論於科技採用研究中,以解釋個人對科技的心理擁有感如何影響科技採用行為。整體而言,本論文力求達到研究情境真實性、研究衡量精準性與研究結論類推性的理論建構三大目標。
    For purposed of efficiency, organizations often engage in adopting or transferring new technology across national boundary to increase their competitive advantage. But researches found over half cases of IT (information technology) implementation failed in the end. This dilemma between losing competitive advantage without IT implication and failing in adoption with technology transfer is a main challenge of organization. The research objective of this dissertation is to understand the profound occasions of this dilemma.
    In the reality, many IT failure cases have illustrated keeping competitive advantage for organization was depends on how to transform users’ routines or habits from current IT usage on post-adoption stage rather than adopting a new technology on pre-adoption stage. In other words, the final goal of IT implementation is to internalize the technology use to become users’ daily practices. In addition, what is missing from the current discussion literature of technology management is that technology adoption is multiple patterns rather than a trade off between acceptance and rejection. Therefore, in different organizational context various users may render multiple interpretations of the same technology, leading diversified adoptive behaviors or some negative and unexpected results of IT use. The first research question of this dissertation is: How do people’s situated practices enact patterns of users’ sense-making towards technology, leading to multiple modes of technology use?
    Prior studies of technology adoption in individual level have developed a set of useful analysis on technology acceptance from users’ cognition perspective. However, the current literature has not yet investigated behaviors of technology adoption from affective approach. The second research question of this dissertation is: How feeling of ownership of technology individual user has influences their technology use?
    Through the literature review from technology adoption, technology sense-making, psychological ownership, and local knowledge, we built a two-stage research strategy to answer the above research questions. First, we formulae a conceptual framework by conducting qualitative research approach. Two cases was investigated in this stage, they were Comfort Taxi Co. in Singapore and Taiwan High Transportation Co. (THT) in Taiwan. By ethnographic data collecting from two cases in two years fieldwork, we observed how taxi drivers in Singapore and Taiwan adopt and use the same technology, G.P.S. (Global Positioning System) dispatch system, named Cablink. Second, from the findings of qualitative cases, we generalized the some hypothetical relationships among psychological ownership of technology, technology sense-making as well as patterns of local knowledge users own. The next, we test these hypotheses through questionnaire development and surveys answered by THT taxis drivers in Taiwan.
    The findings indicated that the taxi drivers had two types of psychological ownership of technology (Self-oriented and Collective-oriented) triggering two modes of technology sense-making (Pragmatism sense-making and Autism sense-making), and two kinds of local knowledge (Local search on knowledge and Distant search on knowledge). Consequently, the frequency of technology use will be influenced by above constructs directly and indirectly.
    In conclusion, this dissertation proposes to analyze technology adoption through sense-making and feelings of ownership by combining qualitative and quantitative methods. The findings enhance the theory of technology sense-making and psychological ownership, and suggest practical implications for post technology adoption and global technology transfer.
    第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………I
    第一節 研究背景與動機……………………………………………………1
    第二節 研究問題與研究目的………………………………………………5
    第三節 研究設計與研究範圍………………………………………………9
    第四節 論文章節安排………………………………………………………13
    第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………………15
    第一節 影響科技採用因素之探討…………………………………………15
    第二節 科技意會與科技採用………………………………………………31
    第三節 在地知識與科技採用………………………………………………37
    第四節 科技心理擁有感與在地知識、科技意會之關聯性………………42
    第五節 文獻總結……………………………………………………………45
    第三章 個案研究……………………………………………………………49
    第一節 質化研究方法與資料搜集…………………………………………49
    第二節 衛星派遣科技簡介與營運模式……………………………………54
    第三節 新加坡康福個案介紹………………………………………………56
    第四節 台灣大車隊個案……………………………………………………63
    第五節 個案分析……………………………………………………………70
    第六節 跨國個案比較………………………………………………………92
    第七節 個案研究總結與研究假說………………………………………101
    第四章 量化研究方法與變數衡量………………………………………106
    第一節 變數操作性定義與假說…………………………………………106
    第二節 變數衡量方法……………………………………………………109
    第三節 實證樣本介紹……………………………………………………115
    第五章 研究結果與討論…………………………………………………117
    第一節 變數信度與效度分析……………………………………………117
    第二節 假說驗證結果……………………………………………………126
    第三節 研究發現討論……………………………………………………131
    第六章 結論與建議………………………………………………………137
    第一節 綜合討論…………………………………………………………137
    第二節 理論意涵…………………………………………………………141
    第三節 實務意涵…………………………………………………………150
    第四節 研究限制與後續研究建議………………………………………158
    參考文獻……………………………………………………………………163
    附 錄………………………………………………………………………183

    圖目錄

    圖1-1: 論文章節安排……………………………………………………14
    圖2-1: 科技接受論示意圖………………………………………………16
    圖2-2: 正式所有權與心理擁有感對個人行為之影響…………………22
    圖2-3: 實踐知識跨國採用的四種模式…………………………………26
    圖2-4: 科技心理擁有感、科技意會與在地知識對科技採用影響示意47
    圖3-1: 衛星派遣系統設備示意圖………………………………………54
    圖3-2: 康福計程車派遣服務示意圖……………………………………55
    圖3-3: 衛星派遣科技系統圖……………………………………………55
    圖3-4: 台灣計程車歷年營業登記計數量………………………………64
    圖3-5: 台灣大車隊乘客每月叫車進線統計……………………………69
    圖3-6: 新加坡康福司機的四種科技採用模式…………………………73
    圖3-7: 新加坡康福司機的四種科技採用、在地知識與科技意會……78
    圖3-8: 台灣大車隊司機的五種科技採用模式…………………………78
    圖3-9: 遠地型在地知識與近地型在地知識分析 ……………………91
    圖3-10:論文觀念架構圖…………………………………………………102
    圖5-1: 關係結構圖……………………………………………………126
    圖5-2: 顯著成立之假說彙整…………………………………………136
    圖6-1: 科技採用整合示意圖…………………………………………139
    圖6-2: 個人科技採用決策分析…………………………………………140

    表目錄

    表2-1: 影響科技採用之認知因素研究彙整……………………………17
    表2-2: 管理領域對所有權之研究………………………………………19
    表2-3: 不同研究領域的所有權觀點……………………………………20
    表2-4: 心理擁有感對員工態度、行為影響的實證研究………………25
    表2-5: 心理擁有感、承諾、身份認同與內化等構念比較表…………28
    表2-6: 在地知識與專家知識比較表……………………………………38
    表3-1: 研究受訪對象一覽表……………………………………………53
    表3-2: 康福計程車的衛星派遣車機設定模式…………………………59
    表3-3: 新加坡康福司機的二類開車實踐………………………………60
    表3-4: 影響計程車司機開車實踐的原因………………………………61
    表3-5: 台北計程車現行組織型態………………………………………64
    表3-6: 大臺北地區計程車司機營運方式………………………………65
    表3-7: 台灣大車隊派遣競標規則………………………………………67
    表3-8: 新加坡康福司機在地知識、科技心理擁有感與科技意會……77
    表3-9: 台灣大車隊司機在地知識、科技心理擁有感與科技意會… 85
    表3-10:康福與台灣大車隊營運模式比較分析…………………………92
    表3-11:新加坡與大臺北二地的制度情境差異分析………………………93
    表3-12:康福與台灣大車隊營運模式比較分析……………………………96
    表3-13:科技心理擁有感與科技意會、科技採用關係……………………98
    表3-14:二地司機的五種在地知識與科技意會、科技採用關係…………99
    表4-1: 變數之操作性定義……………………………………………107
    表4-2: 科技心理擁有感變數衡量題項………………………………110
    表4-3: 在地知識變數衡量問項………………………………………111
    表4-4: 科技意會變數衡量題項………………………………………112
    表4-5: 組織承諾、認同、信任等控制變數量表……………………113
    表4-6: 各個變數的量表參考來源……………………………………114
    表5-1: 科技心理擁有感因素分析表…………………………………118
    表5-2: 在地知識因素分析結果………………………………………119
    表5-3: 科技意會因素分析結果………………………………………121
    表5-4: 在地知識第二階因素分析結果………………………………122
    表5-5: 科技意會第二階因素分析結果………………………………123
    表5-6: 變數之平均數、標準差與相關係數表………………………124
    表5-7: 假說驗證結果一覽表…………………………………………127
    表5-8: 變數間的直接效果、間接效果與整體效果…………………135
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