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    Title: 工業設計單位於產品開發活動中創新管理之研究
    Authors: 邱文雅
    Chiou ,Wen Yea
    Contributors: 李仁芳
    邱文雅
    Chiou ,Wen Yea
    Keywords: 工業設計
    創新管理
    組織溝通
    Date: 2003
    Issue Date: 2009-09-11 17:43:49 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究是探討企業體內工業設計單位及獨立工業設計服務公司於產品開發活動中的溝通與創新管理。針對台灣目前在工業設計領域有優異成績的單位,觀察內部知識創造活動,即產品開發活動的過程,瞭解其企業定位與設計部門的角色、領導者管理風格以及組織溝通的方式,並比較不同組織單位在創新管理上的差異。企業體內工業設計單位之研究係以曾獲得台灣精品獎以及優良設計獎,並擁有自有品牌的廠商為研究對象。而獨立工業設計服務公司之研究則以在工業設計領域有優異表現的設計公司為對象。本研究之研究發現如下:

    在工業設計單位的組織內涵與產品開發活動方面:

    一、 長遠具野心的企業願景與明確的企業定位為工業設計單位良好發展的基礎。宏□提出「創新關懷」的品牌精神;震旦提出「Life @ Work」新工作環境,兩者強調設計力在現今及未來企業發展策略上的重要性,期望透過設計將顧客與產品串起功能性與情感性的連結,讓顧客在生活及工作上能夠與宏□、震旦建立長期關係。浩漢與卓嶽皆以提供客戶全方位完整的設計服務為定位,將設計能力視為企業生存及發展的核心能耐。

    二、 為了讓設計部門獲得更多的資源和更大的權限,企業應該調整設計部門在組織中的架構,使設計單位得以達成目標。企業體內的工業設計單位在組織中不再隸屬於研發單位,而是獨立且平行運作:被提升與事業群平行(宏□),或者直接隸屬於最高層主管單位(震旦)。而設計服務公司的工業設計單位則為設計公司提供差異化服務與累積核心能耐的重要環節。

    在工業設計單位領導風格與產品開發活動方面:

    一、工業設計單位的領導人對所領導的設計團隊應該是要會鼓勵熱情的,以促使
    成員對工作和組織產生了不斷改善的熱忱與創意。

    二、 工業設計單位的領導人在團隊中應該扮演著設計與管理之間的溝通橋樑。不會直接涉入設計團隊的運作,而是協助團隊設定目標,並盡可能保證成員會獲得最大的自主權,對設計團隊的創意會給予適當的空間與尊重,讓設計團隊的潛能得以獲得發揮。

    在工業設計單位組織溝通與產品開發活動方面:

    一、 優秀工業設計單位會在產品開發前端,與高層經營單位做整體全盤的溝通,以瞭解高層對組織未來策略與方向的看法,並取得高層經營單位對產品開發策略的共識,獲得高層的支持與授權。企業體內的高層經營單位應在新產品開發活動的初期(即宏□的產品設計企劃階段;震旦的市場研究與策略發展階段)參與討論,以期在公司整體發展方向及策略等議題上產生全體的共識。在產品策略及方向確定後,則需充分授權給相關單位來執行,而不會過渡干涉。設計服務公司的高層經營單位應授權給設計部門的主管與設計師,設計創意由設計師們來掌握,(浩漢與卓嶽的)高層則是扮演公司對外與客戶建立情感關係的角色。

    二、 工業設計單位領導人與設計師應該在產品設計階段(即產品開發過程中的黑箱階段)進行密切地溝通,以即時的口頭方式的非正式溝通來對設計案的方向、解決問題的方法等議題產生共識,以求直接立即的回應。

    三、 工業設計單位儘管會因為組織規模較大,在管理制度上較為完整健全,如宏□設計處在宏□集團之下可支配資源較多,集團內部也有建置知識管理系統,不過工業設計單位裡的成員仍應該以面對面的溝通方式,而非過度依賴數位科技的管道,對工業設計來說成員的知識較傾向經驗性知識,需要藉由直接口頭溝通較能獲得完整明確的概念想法。

    四、 工業設計單位領導人與設計師之間的溝通不應該特意保持層級的存在,雖然會有職稱上的分層,但譬如在產品設計階段中進行設計展開的腦力激盪時,經理階層設計師和設計師須共同平等發表意見的。去垂直權力距離的管理方式將對工業設計單位的創意激發有正面的助益。

    五、 工業設計單位應該設計有助於創意的物理環境,給予成員開放彈性的工作空間,促進非計畫內的溝通,以增加意外連結的機會。並且會嘗試運用擺設品等感官刺激物來營造創意氣氛。

    六、 在產品開發活動中,PM應是扮演整合者、協調者的角色,負責串連整個流程,掌控設計進度時程,並確保各部門對所開發的產品有一致的共識。企業體內的工業設計單位設置有隸屬設計單位的大PM,並由設計單位的大PM來負責啟動產品開發活動,且其職權在產品線的小PM之上。如宏□設計處設有產品企劃的大PM,由他來整合當地產品線小PM所回饋的資訊;震旦設計中心設有大PM,其負責年度產品企劃與資源整合,與事業部底下的小PM負責資訊回饋和後段行銷企劃的職責不同。工業設計服務公司也會在執行設計的單位和經營階層分別設置PM。如浩漢在兩個事業部下有PM部門,在企劃研究組裡也設置大PM。事業部的小PM負責細項的執行,企研組的大PM負責啟動產品開發活動(與客戶的業務接洽)與擁有更大的資源調度權限。卓嶽有大PM部門負責啟動產品開發活動(與客戶的業務接洽)另外在設計部門設有設計小PM,掌控產品設計的進度與品質。

    七、 工業設計單位與外部組織的溝通,應由PM或PM與ID人員共同參與,因為兩者涉入整個產品從企劃到設計完成的開發過程最為完整。而外部溝通可分為兩類。一是企業設計單位對外部協力製造廠,議題為討論產品製造的可行性與廠商是否具備相關生產技術;二是設計服務公司面對客戶的溝通,議題為產品概念與設計規格等開發前段討論。
    ABSTRACT
    The future trend of Taiwan’s industries will have to step into total transformation from OEM to ODM and OBM and it’s the only measure for Taiwan to be able to face the fierce price competition from China. The paradigm will have to shift from MIT (Made in Taiwan) to IIT (Innovation in Taiwan). The Taiwanese government has been attempting to devote resources and to assist in the transformation of the industries. Some firms are also starting to step outside the frame of traditional manufacturing and realizing that industrial design (ID) will be one of the core competences in improving corporation brand image and product value. Several issues regarding the role of ID are the major concern of this thesis which includes: How do ID people transform information to knowledge through appropriate communication channels; how do firms position the role of its ID department etc.

    The research target of this study is categorized into two major groups: The ID department in the firms which have original brands and independent ID service companies with excellence in performance. The important findings of this study are summarized as follow:

    Findings regarding of ID department’s position in the organization and matters regarding product development activities:

    1. The development of a firm’s ID department should be based on long term ambitious vision and clear positioning of the firm. For example, BenQ’s spirit in brand is caring for innovation; Aurora emphasizes brand new working environment. Both firms wish to disseminate the importance of the competence in design in devising the future strategy for the development of firms. Functional and emotional bonds can be created between customers and the products.

    2. Excellent ID department is usually independent of R&D departmentand is given more resources and authority, therefore it has a very important role during the process of product development.

    Findings regarding the leadership style at ID department and product development activities:

    1. The leaders of the ID departments should always show their passion towards innovation which in turn will encourage the team members to devote consistently and passionately into innovation.
    2. The major responsibility of the leaders of the ID department is to act as a bridge between design and management and will not interfere directly with the operation of the design teams but to assist their teams to establish some sorts of targets. Any idea generated by the design teams is also highly respected.

    Findings regarding ID department organizational communication and product development activities:

    一、 At the very initial phase of product development, ID department should communicate with the higher management from various angles in order to understand the direction of the future strategies and to achieve consensus on product development strategies. For example, the higher management of BenQ and Aurora always participate in the discussions at the initial phase of product development and many issues are based on the future direction of the corporate strategy. As soon as the product development strategies are devised and confirmed, the leader and designers of the ID department will be highly empowered.
    二、 The communications between ID department leader and designers usually take place during the product design phase based on informal channels of communication. The issues of concern at this stage are essentially the broad direction of the project and problem solving. The ID department leaders basically place high respects on the expertise of their designers.
    三、 The members in the ID department mostly prefer face to face communication and do not rely on communication channels based on digital technology even when the scale of the ID department reaches considerable size. For ID, most of the knowledge of the members are tacit knowledge which relies on face to face communications in order to acquire completely accurate ideas of concept.
    四、 There are no form of bureaucracy exists in the ID department. Even though that there might be different job titles, however, during brainstorming, designers of the higher management level and designers express their opinions on an equally position basis.
    五、 ID departments provide excellent working environment for innovation booming and excellent flexibility for designers to improve quality of communications.
    六、 During the process of product development, PM acts as integrator, coordinator and is responsible for linking up the entire process of product development, in control of the proposed schedule, and making sure that every department does have the same consensus towards the product in development. BenQ’s ID department has product development proposal PM who is in charge of integrating feedback information from different product lines of different regions.
    七、 PM and ID members participate in the communications between ID department and other departments. External communication can be categorized into two groups: 1. communication between corporate ID department and external supporting manufacturers on issues regarding the feasibility of manufacturing the products or whether the manufacturers possess relevant production technology; 2. communication between ID service providing firms and their customers on issues regarding product concept and design specifications.
    圖□□目□□錄 10
    表□ 目□ 錄 11
    第一章□緒論 12
    第一節 研究背景與動機 12
    第二節 研究問題 15
    第貳章 文獻探討 17
    第一節 新產品開發過程及其相關文獻探討 17
    第二節□禶~定位與設計部門的角色 22
    第三節 領導者的角色與風格 23
    第四節□庤丹身□噫q 31
    第參章□膍s方法 40
    第一`□膍s流程與架構 40
    第二節 研究變數說明 41
    第三節 研究對象選取與資料收集方式 44
    第肆章 個案介紹 47
    案例一:宏□股份有限公司 47
    案例二:震旦辦公家具事業部(震旦行股份有限公司台北十三分公司) 60
    案例三:浩漢產品設計股份有限公司 70
    案例四:卓嶽股份有限公司 79
    第伍章 研究發現 86
    第陸章 結論與建議 112
    第一節 研究結論 112
    第二節 對後續研究的建議 114
    參考文獻 116
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    第三部分:參考網站
    1. 宏□集團:http://www.acer.com.tw/
    2. 震旦集團:http://www.aurora.com.tw/
    3. 浩漢設計:http://www.e-novadesign.com/chinese/00_index/index.asp
    4. 卓嶽設計:www.xcellent.com.tw
    5. 台灣精品網站:http://taiwaninnovalue.com/SOEc/
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    91359023
    92
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0091359023
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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