English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 11 |  Items with full text/Total items : 88987/118697 (75%)
Visitors : 23575131      Online Users : 231
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/127214
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/127214


    Title: 從物體實際尺寸對深度空間構圖的影響探討視覺平衡之心理歷程
    Exploring the mental process of visual balance in composition with depth: the effect of actual size of objects
    Authors: 何崇瑋
    Ho, Cong-Wei
    Contributors: 黃淑麗
    Huang, Shwu-Lih
    何崇瑋
    Ho, Cong-Wei
    Keywords: 視覺平衡
    眼動
    凝視點
    深度知覺
    Visual balance
    Eye-movement tracking
    Eye fixations
    Depth perception
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-11-06 15:27:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 「視覺平衡」是影響視覺藝術美感的重要因素,但是過去的研究都停留在二維空間的平面刺激,從未有人對具有深度線索的畫面研究視覺平衡。Arnheim(1974)提出深度空間的平衡理論,認為空間深度愈深會增加物體的視覺重量,因此物體在畫中的尺寸要近大遠小才得以達到視覺平衡,然而卻沒有實證研究證明之。而過去對視覺平衡的研究大多使用簡單材料(幾何形狀、純色色塊等),但常因不同的研究程序產生不一樣的結果,更且研究結果可能無法解釋現實生活中的審美行為。因此,本研究探討一近一遠的兩個物體在具空間深度的畫面下的視覺平衡,且實驗一從真實視覺藝術著手,分析參與者對每件作品所知覺到的平衡程度與美感程度以及觀看時的眼動資料,找出人們視覺平衡的心理歷程。實驗二再從統一環境下自行拍攝靜物照片,去除真實藝術其複雜性所帶來的潛在混淆變項以驗證實驗一的結果。實驗三再以簡單幾何體替代實驗二的靜物,驗證去除實際尺寸的背景知識對視覺平衡的影響。本研究發現,物體實際尺寸的背景知識是影響Arnheim(1974)深度空間的平衡理論是否正確的重要因素。其中兩個物體近小遠大的構圖最能讓人感受到視覺平衡與美感,且眼睛凝視點有反映出畫面平衡程度的可能性。本研究從繁到簡的實驗方法能給予後人進行審美相關研究時的參考,研究結果也能給予視覺藝術創作者實際應用上的建議。
    It is well known that even distribution of visual weight in a frame will achieve visual balance. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly studied. For example, no research has been conducted to explore visual balance in a composition with depth cues. This study aimed to verify Arnheim’s (1974) claim that an element with greater depth will carry more visual weight in a picture. Previous studies of visual balance mostly utilized simple materials, such as color patches and geometrical figures, as experimental stimuli. However, different procedures using similar simple materials often resulted in different outcomes. Even worse, these results may not reflect how people appreciate real visual arts. Hence, this research focused on the composition of two objects in different depth, and tried to figure out the mental processes of visual balance by analyzing eye tracking data and subjective judgements of visual balance and beauty. Experiment 1 used artworks of a real visual art – photography as material to address the issue first. Experiment 2 used still-life photos taken by ourselves with the same background to rule out the potential confounding variables of Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the still-life objects of Experiment 2 were replaced with geometrical solids to exclude the background knowledge of object size. It turned out that the knowledge of actual size of objects affects the predictive power of Arnheim’s (1974) visual balance theory in the composition with depth. Also, the composition with a large far-object and a small near-object was perceived to be the most balanced and beautiful one. Moreover, there is some possibility of reflecting the level of visual balance of photos by analyzing eye fixations. The research strategy of this study which started with complex stimuli then gradually reduced to simple stimuli offers an alternative method for future aesthetic research. The results of this study can also provide practical suggestions for visual artists.
    Reference: Alexander, K. R., & Shansky, M. S. (1976). Influence of hue, value, and chroma on the perceived heaviness of colors. Perception Psychophysics, 19(1), 72-74.
    Anderson, C. A. (2012). Beauty: First Edition Design Pub.
    Arnheim, R. (1974). Art and visual perception: Univ of California Press.
    Banerjee, S., & Evans, B. L. (2007). In-camera automation of photographic composition rules. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 16(7), 1807-1820.
    Bell, C. (1924). Art. 1914. London: Chatto Windus.
    Berlyne, D. E. (1971). Aesthetics and psychobiology (Vol. 336): Appleton-Century-Crofts New York.
    Bertamini, M., Bennett, K. M., & Bode, C. (2011). The anterior bias in visual art: The case of images of animals. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 16(6), 673-689.
    Brachmann, A., & Redies, C. (2017). Computational and experimental approaches to visual aesthetics. Frontiers in computational neuroscience, 11, 102.
    Bradley, S. (2014). Design Principles: Visual Weight And Direction. Retrieved from https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2014/12/design-principles-visual-weight-direction/
    Brandt, H. F. (1945). The psychology of seeing. Oxford, England: Philosophical Library.
    Bullough, E. (1907). On the apparent heaviness of colours: a contribution to the aesthetics of colour. British Journal of Psychology, 2(2), 111-152.
    Carpenter, P. (1971). Art and ideas: An approach to art appreciation.
    Findlay, J. M., & Gilchrist, I. D. (2003). Active vision: The psychology of looking and seeing: Oxford University Press.
    Gershoni, S., & Hochstein, S. (2011). Measuring pictorial balance perception at first glance using Japanese calligraphy. i-Perception, 2(6), 508-527.
    Jacobsen, T. (2006). Bridging the arts and sciences: A framework for the psychology of aesthetics: MIT Press.
    Jahanian, A., Vishwanathan, S., & Allebach, J. P. (2015). Learning visual balance from large-scale datasets of aesthetically highly rated images. Paper presented at the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XX.
    Kodak. (1987). How to Take Good Pictures: A Photo Guide by Kodak: Ballantine Books.
    Konkle, T., & Oliva, A. (2011). Canonical visual size for real-world objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37(1), 23.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1966). The savage mind: University of Chicago Press.
    Lauer, D. A., & Pentak, S. (2011). Design basics: Cengage Learning.
    Leyssen, M. H., Linsen, S., Sammartino, J., & Palmer, S. E. (2012). Aesthetic preference for spatial composition in multiobject pictures. i-Perception, 3(1), 25-49.
    Linnett, C. M., Morriss, R. H., Dunlap, W. P., & Fritchie, C. J. (1991). Differences in color balance depending upon mode of comparison. The Journal of general psychology, 118(3), 271-283.
    Linsen, S., Leyssen, M. H., Sammartino, J., & Palmer, S. E. (2011). Aesthetic preferences in the size of images of real-world objects. Perception, 40(3), 291-298.
    Locher, P., & Nagy, Y. (1996). Vision spontaneously establishes the percept of pictorial balance. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 14(1), 17-31.
    Locher, P., Overbeeke, K., & Stappers, P. J. (2005). Spatial balance of color triads in the abstract art of Piet Mondrian. Perception, 34(2), 169-189.
    Locher, P. J. (2003). An empirical investigation of the visual rightness theory of picture perception. Acta Psychologica, 114(2), 147-164.
    Locher, P. J., & Nodine, C. F. (1987). Symmetry catches the eye Eye Movements from Physiology to Cognition (pp. 353-361): Elsevier.
    Locher, P. J., Stappers, P. J., & Overbeeke, K. (1998). The role of balance as an organizing design principle underlying adults' compositional strategies for creating visual displays. Acta Psychologica, 99(2), 141-161.
    Mack, J. (2007). The art of small things: Harvard University Press.
    McManus, I., Edmondson, D., & Rodger, J. (1985). Balance in pictures. British Journal of Psychology, 76(3), 311-324.
    McManus, I., Stöver, K., & Kim, D. (2011). Arnheim's Gestalt theory of visual balance: Examining the compositional structure of art photographs and abstract images. i-Perception, 2(6), 615-647.
    McManus, I. C., Cheema, B., & Stoker, J. (1993). The aesthetics of composition: a study of Mondrian. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 11(2), 83-94.
    Monroe, M. (1925). The apparent weight of color and correlated phenomena. The American Journal of Psychology, 36(2), 192-206.
    Morriss, R. H., & Dunlap, W. P. (1987). Influence of Value on Spatial Balance of Color Pairs. The Journal of general psychology, 114(4), 353-361.
    Morriss, R. H., & Dunlap, W. P. (1988a). Influence of chroma and hue on spatial balance of color pairs. Color Research Application, 13(6), 385-388.
    Morriss, R. H., & Dunlap, W. P. (1988b). Joint effects of chroma and value on spatial balance of color pairs. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 6(2), 117-126.
    Niekamp, W. (1981). An exploratory investigation into factors affecting visual balance. Educational Technology Research and Development, 29(1), 37-48.
    Nodine, C. F., Locher, P. J., & Krupinski, E. A. (1993). The role of formal art training on perception and aesthetic judgment of art compositions. Leonardo, 26(3), 219-227.
    Norman, D. (2004). Introduction to This Special Section on Beauty, Goodness, and Usability. Human-Computer Interaction, 19(4), 311-318. doi:10.1207/s15327051hci1904_1
    Obrador, P., Schmidt-Hackenberg, L., & Oliver, N. (2010). The role of image composition in image aesthetics. Paper presented at the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing.
    Pinkerton, E., & Humphrey, N. K. (1974). The apparent heaviness of colours. Nature, 250(5462), 164.
    Quian Quiroga, R., & Pedreira, C. (2011). How do we see art: an eye-tracker study. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 5, 98.
    Ronchi, L. R. (2002). Balancing visual weights. Ophthalmic Physiological Optics, 22(5), 416-419.
    Ronchi, L. R. (2011). The visual balance between globality and interactions: Lucia Ronchi.
    Sammartino, J., & Palmer, S. E. (2012). Aesthetic issues in spatial composition: Effects of vertical position and perspective on framing single objects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(4), 865.
    Wilson, A., & Chatterjee, A. (2005). The assessment of preference for balance: Introducing a new test. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 23(2), 165-180.
    林幸蓉. (2014). 幾何圖像的平衡度與偏好度知覺歷程研究. 林幸蓉.
    梅常青. (2004). 谈摄影构图的特点. 艺术研究: 哈尔滨师范大学艺术学院学报(4), 59-59.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    心理學系
    106752002
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106752002
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201901226
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    200201.pdf3670KbAdobe PDF7View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback