|Abstract: ||漢代是中國歷史上第一個依儒家倫常等級建立的大一統王朝，儒家為社會運作機制的正當性基 礎，在儒家社會組織藍圖中，文士與庶民服膺於家國同構道德共同體的反饋機制；然而，漢代主導性 意識形態是以宇宙論為核心，從外向內、從天到人，視君王政權、家庭倫理乃至個人道德為宇宙秩序 的一部分；宇宙規律和自然秩序以及理想社會均隸屬於道德的一部分，因而導致「實然」與「應然」 領域的相互混淆，或「應然」領域的高度擴張；加以天災、疾疫不斷及政治高度的不穩定，社會嚴重 呈現善與惡、賢與不肖等價值混同、生命乖謬之社會境遇與道德崩解，文士與庶民藉由文學／圖像∕ 書體再現出矛盾、徘徊於「實然」與「應然」的價值衝突中，總體呈現出東漢末期集體感性生命的哀 傷、沉淪與幻滅，乃至於從現實境遇中有所反思與覺醒，再現出因勢合變的權宜、頡抗、超越，以達 致精神回歸的向度。 本計畫將東漢末期視為中國第一次道德價值逆反的巨大轉型時期，舉凡五言詩的成熟、漢賦敘事 ∕抒情結構的變異、隱逸的生命型態、墓葬文化與祭祀文化中畫像的天人結構、草書的流行、享樂的 風潮、佛道的興起、「士不遇」的抒情再現、以悲為美的美學轉向、「哀時命」文化敘事的重構性追憶、 文學地景與空間政治等政治地理學之文化展演…⋯…⋯等等，都是世變的一種文化再現。本計畫主要聚焦 於漢魏六朝間的文學∕畫像∕書體及相關史料，反覆進行思考、辯證，以突顯東漢末期面臨社會結構 性危機及社會結構毀滅性崩潰時，文化敘事∕抒情結構的轉變及文化美學範式的移位，以突出在傳統 宗法社會體系中，文學／圖像∕書體如何承載並再現出社會結構與集體心理、個體情感由「崩潰」到 「修復」的集體共感與精神超越。|
As the legit basis of society operation, Confucianism is the ethical system of Han dynasty, the first united dynasty. In the system blueprint of Confucian society, scholars and the common people must obey the feedback mechanism of country-family isomorphism. Yet, cosmology, which values matters in the order of the external to the internal, from heaven to humanity, is the leading ideology of Han dynasty. Thus, the monarchy, family ethics, even individual ethics are considered to be a part of the cosmic orders. Ethics includes cosmic orders, natural orders and ideal societies. Consequently, it leads to the confusion between the fields "is" and "ought-to-be" or the high expansion of "ought-to-be". Additionally, the confusion along with the constant catastrophes and diseases, the instability of political authority, the imbalance of good and evil, the compounding between the worthy and the unworthy, the absorb social context, and the corruption of ethics resulted in the situation where the scholars and the common people put the contradictions into the literature, portrays and calligraphic styles as they lingered around the conflicts between "is" and "ought-to-be". While they reflected on the realistic situations, they became awakened and came up with the appropriate solutions to the situations. Ultimately, the scholars and the common people reached the diagram of spiritual retreat after aversion and transcendence. In this project, the end of the Eastern Han dynasty is set to be the period of massive transformation as to the first ethic value reverse in China. The cultural renaissance of changes in life and society includes the maturity of five-character lines, the variations of narration and lyric in Han Fu (rhapsody), the life style of hermit, the construction of Tian (heaven) and Ren (humanity) in funeral and religious practices, the prevalence of cursive script, the popularity of relaxation, the rise of Buddhism and Taoism, the lyric renaissance on the subject of "the wasted talents", the aesthetic shift toward the aesthetics of sorrow, the reconstructive recollection of the cultural narration "being born at the wrong time", the cultural performances of political geography such as literary landscapes and spatial politics, and so forth. Taking the relevant historical data of the literature, portrays, and calligraphy during the Six Dynasties as the research subject, the purpose of this project refers to the construction transformation between cultural narration and lyric, as well as the shift of cultural aesthetic norms during the catastrophic crisis and corruption of society hierarchy at the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. The aim of the project is also set to reflect the bearing and renaissance of the society hierarchy and collective mind, as well as the collective empathy and transcendence as the individual emotion shifts from "corruption" to "recovery".