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Exploration of Theory of Mind and Executive Function in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder : Relationship with Symptom Severity and Adaptive Function
High-functioning autism spectrum disorder
Theory of mind
|Issue Date: ||2019-08-07 16:34:25 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||研究目的：本研究主要目的為探究高功能自閉症類群障礙（High-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, HFASD）兒童心智理論與執行功能之關聯性，並探索心智理論與執行功能表現能否反映其自閉症狀嚴重度及適應行為差異。此外，呼應自閉症類群障礙的異質性，嘗試以心智理論與執行功能表現描繪具注意力不足過動症特徵HFASD兒童之特性。|
Purposes: The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of the Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Finction (EF) in children with High-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD), and explore whether the performance of ToM and EF can reflect severity of autistic symptom and adaptive function. In addition, concerning the heterogeneity within ASD, the study was also attempted to use ToM and EF to identify ADHD trait within HFASD.
Methods: Sixty-six HFASD children and fourty typically development (TD) children were recruited, and all children were aged 7-10 years. Participants were assessed on a battery of tasks measuring ToM (including irony and metaphor) and EF (including inhibition control and cognitive flexibility). IQ, autism severity, ADHD trait and adaptive function were also measured.
Results: Performance on ToM and EF tasks was significantly related to each other in the HFASD group, while there was only a significant negative correlation between ToM and reaction time of prepotent inhibition in the TD group. Examination of the pattern of EF-ToM impairments in the HFASD group, indicating nearly 40% children with HFASD demonstrated intact EF and ToM, while the propotions of impaired ToM and impaired EF were equivalent; furthermore, the children with HFASD combining with ADHD trait proned to demonstrate impaired ToM. The pattern of EF-ToM impairments can explain the severity of autistic symptom. HFASD children who demonstrated impaired EF and ToM also showed more symptoms in communication. However, the pattern of EF-ToM impairments cannot explain the adaptive function.
Conclusions: A significant relationship were revealed between ToM and EF in the shool-aged children with HFASD. Autism severity can be partially explained by the pattern of EF-ToM impairments. The results indicated the importance roles of both the EF and ToM to explain the heterogeneity of HFASD.
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