依專利權耗盡原則，專利權效力不及於專利權人或經其同意之人合法銷售專利物之後續使用與販賣行為。惟於專利物本身具有自我繁殖特性之情形，例如：植物、種子等相關發明，專利物之購買人於使用該專利物過程必然導致繁殖結果，則該經使用而產生之專利物，是否仍為專利權耗盡範圍所及？此涉及專利權耗盡要件與適用範圍之爭議。本文由美國法探討專利權耗盡原則於具自我繁殖特性專利物之適用，分析比較美國聯邦最高法院與聯邦巡迴上訴法院對於孟山都公司種子專利爭議所為之三則重要判決，並評論美國法院就專利權耗盡原則所持見解對農民留種自用慣行之影響。另探討使用與製造行為之界限以及可能的折衷方案。最後提出我國法可得借鏡之處。 Under the patent exhaustion doctrine, a patentee’s exclusive right against the use and resale of a patented article no longer exists after an authorized sale of the same article. However, when an invention involves self-replicating technologies, such as plants or seeds, whether and how this doctrine shall apply here becomes a question that needs further exploration. This is because a second-generation patented article will be produced at the course of an ordinary use of a patented article involving self-replicating technologies. Whether the patent exhaustion doctrine applies to this second-generation article is debatable and will trigger a further inquiry into this doctrine’s elements and scope. This article explores the patent exhaustion doctrine’s theoretical foundation and its application in light of the U.S. patent law. It focuses on the impact that self-replicating technologies have on the application of this doctrine. To examine how the doctrine applies to a patented self- replicating invention, this article investigates three critical decisions regarding Monsanto patent infringement issue from the US Supreme Court and Federal Circuit court. This article then turns to the impacts that the US court decisions have on farmers’ seeds-saving practice. Further, this article examines how to distinguish a permissible “use” from a “making” that will require the patentee’s permission. This article also considers some alternative solutions. Finally, this article offers suggestions for Taiwan’s patent law, which might allow plant and seed inventions to be protected by patent in the near future.