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    Title: 漢語「奪」及複合詞的語意發展: 以認知語言學及語料庫為本
    A Diachronic Semantic Analysis of Duó and its Compounds in Mandarin: A Cognitive Linguistic and Corpus-based Study
    Authors: 陳筑琬
    Chen, Chu-Wan
    Contributors: 鍾曉芳
    Chung, Siaw-Fong
    陳筑琬
    Chen, Chu-Wan
    Keywords: 多義詞
    「奪」
    語料庫
    勢力圖式
    語意網絡
    語法化
    動力學
    Polysemy
    Chinese verb duó
    FORCE schemas
    Corpus
    Semantic network
    Grammaticalization
    Force dynamics
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-07-01 10:38:43 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究以多義詞「奪」為主要研究範圍,以詞彙結構分布及歷時性語意,釐清「奪」的多義現象。前人對於「奪」的多義與語意延伸的討論不多,僅有探究其句法或「奪」的基本語意及近義詞等相關論述,並未透過歷時性的語意探討及共時性的語料庫佐證,故本研究以《中央研究院漢籍電子文獻》中的古漢語語料庫及《聯合知識庫》的現代漢語語料為本,以客觀的語言事實作分析,參照Talmy(2000)所提出的動力學(Force Dynamics)結合Langacker(2002)射體(Trajector)與界標(Landmark)的概念為本,輔以Johnson(1987)勢力概念(Force Schemas)為基模,探討「奪」的相關意象圖式,並討論「奪」的語法化及其語意延伸以描繪「奪」的語意網絡圖。
    研究發現,從語料中可發現,古漢語語料大多以單純詞形式出現,而現代漢語語料則以複合詞形式為普遍,雙字詞「奪X」的語法結構原本在上古時期都以補充式的結果補語為主,但隨後使用頻率逐漸遞減,在現代漢語語料中補充式的結果補語使用頻率最低。在近代漢語語料中,「X奪」首次出現動補結果為主的情形,另外,近代漢語語料中發現「奪X」的語料多於「X奪」,且位居最高的使用為動補趨向補語。再者,「奪」涵蓋五種的意象圖式,其中Johnson(1987)之「吸引」與「強制」勢力概念可釐清「奪」的「強取」義與「削除」義,並繪出與「奪」相關之意象圖式。此外,透過Talmy(2000)所提出的動力學概念中的「施動者」(agonist)與「受動者」(antagonist)的互動關係,可發現「用手抓」義為核心語意。本篇對於「奪」的詞義發現有助於未來歷時性的詞彙語意研究。
    The study investigated the diachronic meanings of the polysemy duó and its internal structures in Mandarin Chinese. The lack of in-depth discussion of duó motivated the study of the diachronic meanings of duó. Data from the Hanchi Database of Academia Sinica, including the Corpus of Old Chinese, the Corpus of Middle Chinese, and the Corpus of Modern Chinese, was extracted as the ancient data of this study and the United Daily News constituted the modern data. Based on the data, the image schemas of duó were presented, utilizing the Force Dynamics theory of Talmy (2000), the Trajector-Landmark Alignment of Langacker (2002), and the Force Schemas of Johnson (1987) as the basic frameworks. A semantic network of polysemous verb duó was also postulated so as to trace its semantic extensions and grammaticalization patterns.
    It was found that the internal structures of [duó X] were originally verb-resultative complements in the Corpus of Old Chinese, but the frequency gradually decreased with time. The verb-resultative complements of [duó X] were the least frequenct in the Corpus of Modern Chinese. Comparatively, in the Corpus of Early Chinese, the verb-resultative complements of [X duó] were most frequently used. As for [duó X], it was found that [duó X] started to become more common in the Corpus of Early Mandarin Chinese. The directional complements were the most frequently used in the Corpus of Early Mandarin Chinese. From the data, duó appeared most of the time as a single-charactered form in ancient Chinese, but as two-charactered form in modern Chinese. It was also found that there were five image schemas of duó. The two senses ‘to snatch’ and ‘be deprived of’ were distinguished according to the schemas of Johnson (1987). We also discovered that the sense ‘to grip’ was the the core sense based on the interaction between the ‘agonist’ and the ‘antagonist’ discussed in Talmy (2000). In conclusion, this semantic study of polysemy duó will contribute to future diachronic lexical semantic research.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    語言學研究所
    1045550061
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1045550061
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900039
    Appears in Collections:[語言學研究所] 學位論文

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