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    Title: 美國共部門團體協商之法律政策分析
    Legal Policy and Collective Bargaining in the U.S. Public Sector
    Authors: 丘周剛
    Chiu, Jou-Gang
    Contributors: 問題與研究
    Keywords: 公共部門;團體協商;政府再造;勞動關係
    public sector;collective bargaining;government reinvention;labor relations
    Date: 1999-06
    Issue Date: 2019-04-15 16:23:00 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來有關企業化政府之理論已成為先進國家的討論焦點,也是政府再造的重要依據。而政府再造在公共部門勞動關係上較為重要者,闕為團體協商制度之實施。在我國,司法院大法官會議釋字三七三號曾作出解釋指出,工會法第四條之規範乃屬違憲,而有關公共部門勞動權利之行使有無加以限制之必要,該號解釋亦指出應由立法機關檢討與修正,此外,考試院所提出之公務員基準法草案亦初步承認公共部門受雇者得「請求」政府安排團體協商,但對團體協商之範圍與意義並不十分明確,足見國內對公共部門團體協商在法律上之意義及範圍,有進一步研究之必要。關於勞動者之基本權,一般而言包括團結權、協商權與罷工權,無論是公共部門或私部門,在美國的法制上都有其應有之規範與限制,但都不似我國目前在既有法制體系上將公共部門受雇者勞動基本權完全否定之規範。本文的目的乃是探討美國公共部門團體協商之法源、內涵與範圍,並研究司法對於公共部門團體協商之限制以及國家所扮演之角色,另外在柯林頓總統上任後所重視之政府再造運動,關於公共部門勞動關係之改革上,亦有詳盡之論述。最後再提出結論與本文看法,以為日後我國公共部門勞動相關法制修正之參考。
    The theory of “entrepreneurial government” has become a populartopic in major developed country of late. It is also a basic resource of government reinvention. A key element between government reinvention and public sector labor relations is the collective bargaining system. In Taiwan, as interpreted by the Judicial Yuan, Art. 4 of the Trade Union Act violates the Constitution, and thus limitations on labor rights in the public sector should be reviewed and modified. Moreover, the draft of the Public Servant Standards Law proposed by the Examination Yuan also would allow public servants to request the government to arrange for collective bargaining. Generally speaking, fundamental labor rights are composed of the right to unionize, the right of collective bargaining, and the right to strike. These rights are recognized in the U.S. legal system. However, in Taiwan, the fundamental labor rights of the public sector have been totally denied so far. This study first describes the legal basis of labor rights, focusing on the main theme of U.S. public sector collective bargaining. It then reviews several limitations made by the Judiciary department and the role of government. Furthermore, the Clinton adminstration's initiative to reform labor relations in the public sector is consistent with the government reinvention. The last section of the article summarizes views that might be considered as references for further developments in Taiwan.
    Relation: 問題與研究, 38(6), 95-113
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[問題與研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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