Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
A political economy framing analysis of China’s Belt and Road Initiative in Southeastern Asia press – A comparative study on the Republic of Philippines, Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore
Belt and Road Initiative
South China Sea
|Issue Date: ||2019-04-01 15:14:03 (UTC+8)|
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), first proposed by Chinese leader Xi Jinping in 2013, is a cross-national investment plan claiming to work towards win-win scenario by raising infrastructure standard and seeking political and economic cooperation with neighboring countries. The author chooses the Republic of Philippines, Malaysia and the Republic of Singapore, which are all on the Maritime Silk Road and have China as their top trading partner, to see how their media respond to the project when economic development is sought while having different levels of sovereignty issue with China in the South China Sea. Nine hundred and forty-nine articles are collected from 7 media of the three countries after systematic sampling to find the quality, topic, tendency, news origin, news source and frames of BRI media content. The research finds that economic incentive remains the most used frame for all three countries. However, in Malaysia, standpoint and ownership of media have a huge influence on the reporting of BRI. Whether BRI can benefit locals becomes the center of debate for politicians. In the Philippines, BRI is regarded as a great opportunity to develop its country, however, China’s activities in SCS is seen as a political threat that harms national interests. This leads to higher economic concern, political threat and political stability frame. The Straits Times, owned by Singapore government, has the most BRI articles and more often uses non-prominent frame to show the multiple aspects of BRI. It not only keeps track of how other countries respond to BRI but also serves as a platform for officials and scholars to find niche and identify problems of BRI.
|Reference: ||English Literature|
Abi-Habib, M. (2018, June 26). Behind on payments to China, Sri Lanka coughed up territory instead. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/south-asia/behind-on-payments-to-china-sri-lanka-coughed-up-territory-instead
AIIB (2018). Members and Prospective Members of the Bank. Retrieved from https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html
Agence France-Presse (2017, May 12). China champions globalization with new Silk Road summit. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/world/regions/asia-pacific/169563-preview-china-belt-road-summit
Agence France-Presse (2017, August 5). China ups ante in high-altitude standoff with India. Manilla Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/08/05/china-ups-ante-in-high-altitude-standoff-with-india/
Agence France-Presse (2018, June 9). China hosts Russia, Iran for summit as US tensions rise. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/06/09/china-hosts-russia-iran-for-summit-as-us-tensions-rise/
Agence France-Presse (2018, June 19). Australia vows to compete with China funding in Pacific. Manilla Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/06/19/australia-vows-to-compete-with-china-funding-in-pacific/
Akhavan-Majid, R. and Ramaprasad, J. (1998). Framing and ideology: A comparative analysis of US and Chinese newspaper coverage of the fourth United Nations conference on women and the NGO forum. Mass Communication and Society 1(3–4), p. 131–152.
Alexa (2018, September 28). Top Sites by Country. Retrieved from https://www.alexa.com/topsites/countries
Al-Rodhan, K. R. (2007). A Critique of the China Threat Theory: A Systematic Analysis. Asian Perspective, 31(3), pp. 41-66.
An, S. K. & Gower, K. K. (2009). How do the news media frame crises? A content analysis of crisis news coverage. Public relations Review, 35, p.107–112. Retrieved from https://academic.csuohio.edu/kneuendorf/c63309/ArticlesFromClassMembers/Johnny.pdf
Arsenault, A. (2017, April 27). ‘Democracy as we know it is dead’: Filipino journalists fight fake news. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/democracy-as-we-know-it-is-dead-filipino-journalists-fight-fake-news-1.4086920
ASEAN (2018). Asean Chair. Retrieved from https://asean.org/asean/asean-chair/
Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative (2017). Who’s Claiming What? Retrieved from https://amti.csis.org/maritime-claims-map/
Associated Press (2017, May 11). 'Silk Road' plan stirs unease over China's strategic goals. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/world/2017/05/238148/silk-road-plan-stirs-unease-over-chinas-strategic-goals
Associated Press (2017, July 6). Philippines releases surveillance photos of Chinese ships in disputed sea as Asia summit convenes. The National Post. Retrieved from https://nationalpost.com/news/world/philippines-releases-surveillance-photos-of-chinese-ships-in-disputed-sea-as-asia-summit-convenes
Associated Press (2017, July 6). China demands India leave Himalayan plateau in rising spat. The Inquirer. Retrieved from https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/911392/china-demands-india-leave-himalayan-plateau-in-rising-spat
Associated Press (2018, July 6). Malaysia’s Mahathir to visit China for talks on projects. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/07/06/malaysias-mahathir-to-visit-china-for-talks-on-projects/
Audit Bureau of Circulations Malaysia (2016). ‘Print Newspapers have 3.3 Million copies circulated per publishing day in the country’, 30 November 2016. Retrieved from http://abcm.org.my/news-and-events/press-releases/print-newspapers-have-3-3-million-copies-circulated-per-publishing-day-in-the-country/
Banal, C. (2017, June 1). The loan arranger. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from http://business.inquirer.net/230520/the-loan-arranger-2
Bao, X. (2017). A Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘The New York Times’ News Reports about “the Belt and Road Initiative”.
Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.
Basa, M. (2018, January 27). Duterte: socialists reason for rejecting EU aid. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/194612-duterte-socialists-reason-reject-eu-aid
BBC (2017, September 5). Singapore profile – Media. BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-15966553
BBC (2018, March 11). China’s Xi allowed to remain ‘president for life’ as term limits removed. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-43361276
Begum, K. (2017 July 20). Chow Kit set to be wholesale hub by 2020. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/389227
Beng, P. K. (2018, August 28). The cost of canceling ECRL. Lessons from China’s penalty on Myitsone Dam. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/columns/440638
Bernama (2016, May 25). Msia ready to explore military collaboration with China to tackle extremism, terrorism – Najib. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/2016/05/147808/msia-ready-explore-military-collaboration-china-tackle-extremism-terrorism-najib
Bernama (2017, May 13). One Belt, One Road initiative is a game changer for region: Najib. Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved from https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/one-belt-one-road-initiative-is-a-game-changer-for-region-najib-8844490
Bernama (2017, May 16). Najib reiterates benefits of China's One Belt One Road initiative. The Star Online. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/05/16/najib-reiterates-benefits-of-china-one-belt-one-road/
Bernama (2018, April 6). ECRL to help further boost Malaysia's economy. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/business/2018/04/353670/ecrl-help-further-boost-malaysias-economy
Bernama (2018, August 25). ECRL not cancelled yet, all options still being studied says Dr M. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/08/25/ecrl-not-cancelled-yet-all-options-still-being-studied-says-dr-m/#KI7JowcckteDImDq.99Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/08/25/ecrl-not-cancelled-yet-all-options-still-being-studied-says-dr-m/
Bernama (2019, January 2). Malacca Gateway to go ahead as it is under local supervision – CM. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/458624
Bloomberg (2018, March 12). China seen slowing spending on Belt and Road energy projects. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2018/03/12/china-seen-slowing-spending-on-belt-and-road-energy-projects/
Bloomberg (2018, July 25). Malaysia's Problem: How to Cut a Better Economic Deal With China. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/business/2018/07/394256/malaysias-problem-how-cut-better-economic-deal-china
Branigan, T. & Watts, J. (2012, May 23). Philippines accuses China of deploying ships in Scarborough shoal. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/may/23/philippines-china-ships-scarborough-shoal
Buan, L. (2017, November 19). Southeast Asia's poorest mostly Filipinos, Indonesians – ASEAN report. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/world/regions/asia-pacific/188918-asean-report-poverty-philippines-indonesia
Busbarat, P. (2017, August 3). Why a strong Asean is essential for the region. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/why-a-strong-asean-is-essential-for-region.
Campbell, C. (2016, October 19). ‘I Am Chinese’: Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s Awkward Charm Offensive in China. TIME. Retrieved from http://time.com/4536302/rodrigo-duterte-china-philippines-xi-jinping/
Caña, P. J. and Macaraeg, P. (2017, July 17). Ramon Ang In Talks to Acquire Majority Stake in Philippine Daily Inquirer. Entrepreneur. Retrieved from https://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/news-and-events/ang-in-talks-to-acquire-majority-stake-in-inquirer-a36-20170717
Canivel, R. S. C. (2017, February 27). China keen on putting up industrial park in PH. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://business.inquirer.net/225319/china-keen-putting-industrial-park-ph
Canivel, R. S. C. (2017, May 15). De Venecia proposes joint exploration, development in Spratlys. Inquirer.net. Retrieved from http://globalnation.inquirer.net/156618/de-venecia-proposes-joint-exploration-development-spratlys
Carey, J. (1989). Communication as culture. London: Unwin Hyman.
Casayuran, M. & Reuters (2017, May 17). Buy Filipino, create jobs, Recto tells DND. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/05/17/buy-filipino-create-jobs-recto-tells-dnd/
CCTV (2013, September 7). Special reports on President Xi Jinping speech at the Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan. (Video at 58’05’’). CCTV. Retrieved from http://tv.cntv.cn/video/VSET100173042720/cf9738dd95a94669aedf5977afb9a627
Chellaney, B. (2016, January 28). Upholding the Asian order. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://opinion.inquirer.net/92399/upholding-the-asian-order
Cheong, D. (2018, April 8a). Singapore and China sign deal to boost cooperation on Belt and Road Initiative. The Strait Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/singapore-and-china-sign-deal-to-boost-cooperation-on-belt-and-road-initiative
Cheong, D. (2018, April 8b). Belt and Road Initiative a focal point for Singapore's ties with China. The Strait Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/bri-a-focal-point-for-spores-ties-with-china
China Daily (2017, May 16). List of Deliverables of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. China Daily. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2017-05/16/content_29359377.htm
Clarke, M. (2016) ‘One Belt, One Road’ and China’s emerging Afghanistan dilemma. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 70(5), p. 563-579, DOI:
Clausen, L. (2003). Global news production. Copenhagen Business School Press.
CNN Philippines (2016, February 20). More islands, more fun in PH. CNN Philippines. Retrieved from http://cnnphilippines.com/videos/2016/02/20/More-islands-more-fun-in-PH.html
Coconuts Manila (2014, April 7). How Emilio Yap built his PHP46-billion empire. Coconuts Manila. Retrieved from https://coconuts.co/manila/features/how-emilio-yap-built-his-php46-billion-empire/
Committee on Media Standards of the Association of Accredited Advertising Agencies of the Philippines (2004). 4A’s media fact book. Makati City: 4A’s Committee on Media Standards of the Association of Accredited Advertising
Agencies of the Philippines.
Chan, M. (2016, October 2). Chinese defence adviser turns up heat on Singapore over South China Sea row. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2024158/chinese-defence-adviser-turns-heat-singapore-over-south
Cheong, S. W. (2017, April 30). Leo Suryadinata's The Rise Of China And The Chinese Overseas: 10 takeaways from the book. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/10-takeaways-from-the-book
CIA (2017). The World Fact Book. Crude oil – proved reserves. Received from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2244.html
Coronel, S. S. (2001). ‘The Media, The Market and Democracy: The Case of The Philippines’, The Public, 8(2), p.109-126.
Corrales, N. (2017, May 14). PH envoy to Asean: Let’s develop South China Sea’s oil ‘potential’. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://globalnation.inquirer.net/156589/ph-envoy-to-asean-lets-develop-south-china-seas-oil-potential
Cozma, R. & Kozman, C. (2018). The Syrian crisis in U.S. and Lebanese newspapers: A cross-national analysis. The International Communication Gazette, 80(2), p. 185–204.
Dayag, D. T. (2010). ‘News reporting in the Philippines: English in print media’, World Englishes, 29 (3), pp. 353.
Dayan, D. and Katz, E. (1992). Media event: The live broadcasting of history. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Decena, M. J. E. (2017, May 26). How are PH-Sino relations faring? Inquirer. https://opinion.inquirer.net/104287/ph-sino-relations-faring
Deloitte Singapore (2018). BRI Funds raised by countries in Southeast Asia. In Yap, S. W. (2018, June 27). Risk & opportunities: Singapore’s role in China’s Belt & Road. Retrieved from https://medium.com/venture-views/risk-opportunities-singapores-role-in-china-s-bri-ff6377d035b7
Department of Finance of the Philippines (2018, January 23). “Build, build, build” to roll out 75 projects worth $35.5-B. Retrieved from https://www.dof.gov.ph/taxreform/index.php/2018/01/23/build-build-build-roll-75-projects-worth-35-5-b/
Department of Statistics, Malaysia (2016, July 22). Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2014 – 2016. Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20160812014710/https://www.statistics.gov.my/index.php?r=column%2FcthemeByCat&cat=155&bul_id=OWlxdEVoYlJCS0hUZzJyRUcvZEYxZz09&menu_id=L0pheU43NWJwRWVSZklWdzQ4TlhUUT09
Department of Statistics, Singapore (2017). Ethnic mix of citizen population, as of June (%). Retrieved from https://www.strategygroup.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/population-in-brief-2017.pdf
de Venecia Jr., J. C. (2017, May 27). Joint exploration in South China Sea; proposal for third silk route. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/05/27/joint-exploration-in-south-china-sea-proposal-for-third-silk-route/
de Vreese, C. H. (2005). News framing: Theory and typology. Information Design Journal +Document Design, 13(1), p. 51–61
de Vreese, C. H. (2015). The Effects of Frames in Political Television News on Issue Interpretation and Frame Salience. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(1), pp. 36 - 52.
Dobell, G. (2017 June 5). The durian pact: the Five Power Defence Arrangements. The Strategist. Retrieved from https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/durian-pact-five-power-defence-arrangements/
Durant, J., Bauer, M. & Gaskell, G. (1998). Biotechnology in the public sphere: A European source book. London: Science Museum.
Encyclopædia Britannica (2018). Philippines. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/place/Philippines/The-early-republic#ref387410
Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 41(4), p. 6-27.
Episcopo, E. (2016). One Belt, One Road, and a New Paradigm of Interregionalism? Graduate Thesis.
Esmaquel II, P. (2015, June 8). Malacañang on China dispute: Aquino has Chinese roots. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/95671-philippines-china-dispute-aquino-chinese-roots
European Council on Foreign Relations (2015). ‘“One Belt, One Road”: China’s Great Leap Outward’, June 2015. Retrieved from http://www.ecfr.eu/page/-/China_analysis_belt_road.pdf
Fairclough, N. (1995). Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language. London: Longman.
Fisher, M. (2016, July 14). The South China Sea: Explaining the Dispute. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/15/world/asia/south-china-sea-dispute-arbitration-explained.html
Foon, H. W. (2017, April 30). Belt-road changes world order. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/04/30/beltroad-changes-world-order-chinas-ambitious-economic-plan-is-set-to-draw-up-a-new-global-paradigm/
Foon, H. W. (2017, July 30). Asean Belt and Road risks under scrutiny. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/07/30/asean-belt-and-road-risks-under-scrutiny-china-is-signalling-that-it-will-not-be-splashing-money-ind/
Foon, H. W. (2017, October 8). Unearthing China-Asean history. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/10/08/unearthing-chinaasean-history-china-wants-to-understand-more-about-the-history-of-the-region-in-orde/
Foon, H. W. (2017 November 20). Mapping an ambitious path. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2017/11/20/mapping-an-ambitious-path/
Foon, H. W. (2018, March 25). China factor looms ahead of election. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/03/25/china-factor-looms-ahead-of-election-the-china-card-was-flashed-in-almost-every-general-election-in/
Foon, H. W. (2018, June 3). Dr M jolts China’s Belt-Road plan. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/business/2018/07/394256/malaysias-problem-how-cut-better-economic-deal-china
Forbes (2017, November 29). Malaysia Wrestles With Beijing's One Belt One Road Bonanza. Forbes Asia. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesasia/2017/11/29/malaysia-my-second-home/#221c1e467bda
Fowler, R. (1991). Language in the news. London: Routledge.
Francia, L. H. (2017, May 23). China’s aid is a Trojan horse. Inquirer.net. Retrieved from http://usa.inquirer.net/3873/chinas-aid-trojan-horse
Fu, Q., Li, B., Yang, L., Wu, Z. and Zhang, X. (2015). Ecosystem Services Evaluation and Its Spatial Characteristics in Central Asia’s Arid Regions: A Case Study in Altay Prefecture, China. Sustainability, 7, p. 8335-8353; doi:10.3390/su7078335
Gagliardone, I & Pál, N. (2017). Freer but not free enough? Chinese journalists finding their feet in Africa. Journalism, 2017, Vol. 18(8), p. 1049–1063.
Gamson, W. A., & Lasch, K. E. (1983). The political culture of social welfare policy. In S. E. Spiro & E. Yuchtman-Yaar (Eds.), Evaluating the welfare state: Social and political perspectives, pp. 397-415. New York: Academic Press.
Gamson, W. A., and Modigliani, A. (1987). ‘The Changing Culture of Affirmative Action.’ Research in Political Sociology, 3, pp. 143.
Gamson, W. A., Croteau D., Hoynes W., and Sasson T. (1992). ‘Media Images and the Social Construction of Reality’. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, pp. 373-393.
Geducos, A. C. B. (2017, May 16). Duterte: Talks on disputed waters won’t affect PH-China agreements. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/05/16/duterte-talks-on-disputed-waters-wont-affect-ph-china-agreements/
Giap, T. K. & Kai, T. B. (2017, January 18). Transform or risk new normal of low, slow growth. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/transform-or-risk-new-normal-of-low-slow-growth
Ginneken, J. van (1998). Understanding global news: A critical introduction.
Global Times (2017, August 18). China signs Belt and Road deals with 69 countries and organisations. Global Times. Retrieved from https://gbtimes.com/china-signs-belt-and-road-deals-69-countries-and-organisations
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Goh, B. & Marshall, A. R. C. (2018, May 4). China plans to widen Mekong River for bigger cargo ships. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://business.mb.com.ph/2017/05/04/china-plans-to-widen-mekong-river-for-bigger-cargo-ships/
Goh, S. N. (2017, June 16). Normal Singapore-China ties can also be strong and beneficial. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/normal-singapore-china-ties-can-also-be-strong-and-beneficial
Goh, S. N. (2017, September 23). The way forward for Singapore-China relationship. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/the-way-forward-for-singapore-china-relationship
Gomez, James (2005). Freedom of expression and the media in Singapore. (1 ed.) London UK: Article 19.
Gomez, Jim (2016, March 21). Philippines spots suspected Chinese ships at disputed atoll. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from http://www.thejakartapost.com/seasia/2016/03/02/philippines-spots-suspected-chinese-ships-at-disputed-atoll.html
Guan, L. H. & Suryadinata, L. (2011). Malaysian Chinese: Recent developments and prospects. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.tw/books?id=hUFBnyPRbLUC&pg=PR29&lpg=PR29&dq=MCA+newspaper+malaysia&source=bl&ots=VifYuZrWRP&sig=5Vl345fUHogwKuw0ks1tVa1BOXA&hl=zh-TW&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjcuLjc3cjZAhUEGpQKHZN2BvUQ6AEIUzAF#v=onepage&q=newspaper&f=false
Gunasegaram, P. (2017, May 23). Do all roads have to lead to China? Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/columns/383121
Gurung, S. K. (2018, July 12). Navy gets access to Singapore’s Changi naval base. The Economic Times. Retrieved from
Guzman, C. (2018, April 28). Duterte offers Beijing '60-40' deal in S. China Sea joint exploration. CNN Philippines. Retrieved from http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2018/04/28/duterte-beijing-60-40-south-china-sea-joint-exploration.html
Ha, J. S. (2017). Tailoring the Arab Spring to American values and interests: A framing analysis of U.S. elite newspapers’ opinion pieces. The International Communication Gazette, 79(3), p. 276–297.
Hamdy, N. and Gomaa, E. (2012). Framing the Egyptian uprising in Arabic language newspapers and social media. Journal of Communication, 62, p. 195–211.
Hee, Y. J. (2017, October 11). Kuantan rides China wave on land and sea, but at what cost? Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/397937
Herman, E. & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.
Hernandez, M., Bland, D. and Kassay, M. (2016). Conflicting Claims. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://multimedia.scmp.com/2016/southChinaSea/explore.html
Heydarian, R. J. (2015, October 27). China’s great fall: The end of Beijing consensus? Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/104612-china-great-fall-beijing-consensus
Heydarian, R. J. (2017, March 14). Can we trust China? Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/03/14/can-we-trust-china/
Heydarian, R. J. (2017, May 4). Duterte's soft-pedalling on Beijing: Good for Manila, bad for Asean. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/dutertes-soft-pedalling-on-beijing-good-for-manila-bad-for-asean
Heydarian, R. J. (2018, February 28). Duterte's Ambitious ‘Build, Build, Build’ Project To Transform The Philippines Could Become His Legacy. Out of Asia. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/outofasia/2018/02/28/dutertes-ambitious-build-build-build-project-to-transform-the-philippines-could-become-his-legacy/#23fbd8e31a7f
Hibino, A. & Nagata, M. (2006). Biotechnology in the Japanese media: Comparative analysis of newspaper articles on genetic engineering in Japan and Europe. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9, p. 12–23 DOI: 10.1111/j.1367-2223.2006.00176.x
Hincks, J. (2016, October 26). A Brief History of U.S.-Philippine Relations. TIME. Retrieved from http://time.com/4543996/history-of-us-philippine-relations/
Hjarvard, S. (2002). The study of international news. In Jensen, K. B. (Ed.), A handbook of media and communication research: Qualitative and quantitative methodologies, p. 91-98. London: Routledge.
Hofman, I. (2016). Politics or profits along the “Silk Road”: what drives Chinese farms in Tajikistan and helps them thrive? Eurasian Geography and Economics, 57(3), p. 457-481.
Hong, Z. (2018, April 26). Asean unity and the role of China's Belt and Road Initiative. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/asean-unity-and-the-role-of-chinas-belt-and-road-initiative
Ignatius, D. (2017, May 30). New Silk Road: Is there a China plan for M’sia? Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/383919
Ignatius, D. (2018, May 16). A reset in Malaysia-China relations. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/columns/425159
IMDA (2018). What we do. Retrieved from https://www.imda.gov.sg/about/what-we-do
Inquirer (2018, June 27). Beware of China debt trap, experts warn PH officials. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://globalnation.inquirer.net/168152/beware-china-debt-trap-experts-warn-ph-officials
International Money Fund (2017, October). World Economic Outlook Database. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2017/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2017&ey=2017&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=93&pr1.y=8&c=548%2C518%2C516%2C522%2C566%2C576%2C578%2C536%2C544%2C582&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=#download
Jimenez-David, R. (2016, September 6). Grief and apprehension. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://opinion.inquirer.net/97097/grief-and-apprehension
Johnson, H. (2018, January 17). Why Rappler is raising Philippine press freedom fears. BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-42713897
Kabiling, G. (2017, March 14). Duterte to return to China for “One Belt, One Road” summit. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/03/24/duterte-to-return-to-china-for-one-belt-one-road-summit/
Kabiling, G. (2018, July 20). Duterte will never condone extralegal killings, police abuses in drug war — Palace. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/07/20/duterte-will-never-condone-extralegal-killings-police-abuses-in-drug-war-palace/
Kang, M. and Jang, J. (2013). NIMBY or NIABY? Who defines a policy problem and why: Analysis of framing in radioactive waste disposal facility placement in South Korea. Asia Pacific View Point, 54(1), p. 49-60. Retrieved from https://wpsa.research.pdx.edu/meet/2012/jangandkang.pdf
Khiang, C. P. (2017, January 24). DAP’s Liew Chin Tong out to discredit MCA for political self-interest. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/letters/370312
Keller, B. (2012, December 2). Being there. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/03/opinion/keller-being-there.html
Kipgen, N. (2017, March 2). The Philippines' South China Sea Flip-Flop. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/03/the-philippines-south-china-sea-flip-flop/
Fernandez, W. (2018, Jan 25). Singapore can play key role in Belt and Road: Chun Sing. The Strait Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/world/europe/spore-can-play-key-role-in-belt-and-road-chun-sing
Lai, L., Guo, K. (2017). The performance of one belt and one road exchange rate:
Based on improved singular spectrum analysis. Physica A, 483, p. 299–308.
Lee, H. L. (2016, August 21). PM Lee Hsien Loong delivered his National Day Rally speech on 21 August 2016 at the ITE College Central. Prime Minister’s Office Singapore. Retrieved from https://www.pmo.gov.sg/national-day-rally-2016
Lee, H. L. (2018, April 20). PM Lee Hsien Loong at the Boao Forum for Asia Opening Plenary. Retrieved from https://www.pmo.gov.sg/newsroom/pm-lee-hsien-loong-boao-forum-asia-opening-plenary
Lee, G. (2018, August 1). China’s largest oil group CNPC refutes subsidiary’s role in 1MDB money-laundering scandal. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/business/article/2157874/chinas-largest-oil-group-cnpc-refutes-subsidiarys-role-1mdb-money
Lee, Y. & Naing, S. (2017, August 4). Exclusive - China in talks to sell electricity to Myanmar amid warming ties. Reuters via The Star. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-china-energy/exclusive-china-in-talks-to-sell-electricity-to-myanmar-amid-warming-ties-idUSKBN1AK011
Lee, Y. H. (2017, November 18). A South China Sea Code of Conduct: Is Real Progress Possible? The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/11/a-south-china-sea-code-of-conduct-is-real-progress-possible/
Legaspi, A. (2017, October 5). PHL, China officials say presence of Chinese ships in West PHL Sea ‘natural’. GMA News online. Retrieved from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/news/nation/628379/phl-china-officials-say-chinese-ships-in-west-phl-sea-natural/story/
Lewis, M. W. (2013, September 6). The Philippines’ Uneven Economic Boom. Retrieved from http://www.geocurrents.info/economic-geography/philippines-uneven-economic-boom
Lopez, A. A. (2018, May 14). ASEAN needs to implement dormant instruments to regain trust – Natalegawa. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/05/12/asean-needs-to-implement-dormant-instruments-to-regain-trust-natalegawa/
Lu, Y. H. & Chung, J. (2016, November 1). Task force to help promote the ‘new southbound policy’. Taipei Times. Retrieved from http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2016/11/01/2003658346
Mabasa, R. (2017 May 24). China firm on resolving disputes through peaceful means – Foreign Ministry. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/05/24/china-firm-on-resolving-disputes-through-peaceful-means-foreign-ministry/
Macrohon, P. (2013, January 21). Senate declares Chinese New Year as special working holiday. Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved from
Maggay, M. P. (2017, June 15). ‘Minsan isang gamu-gamo…’. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://opinion.inquirer.net/104786/minsan-isang-gamu-gamo
Malaysiakini (2013). Financial Statements for the Year Ended 31 December 2013. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://about.malaysiakini.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Mkini-Dotcom-Sdn-Bhd-2013-Financial-Statements.pdf
Malaysiakini (2017, May 11). Bersatu: Get tough on China developers hiring own citizens. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/381819
Malaysiakini (2017, July 20). Only China is in investment mode, says Johari. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/389227
Malaysiakini (2018, February 7). Dr M: Harapan to review 'unbeneficial' foreign projects, may nix ECRL. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/411442
Malaysiakini (2018, May 11). China urges new M'sia gov't to uphold bilateral agreements. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/424238
Malaysiakini (2018, June 11). Dr M: We're friendly with China but we must owe them less. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/429288
Malaysiakini (2018, August 1). No! Najib denies meeting Jho Low as investigators closed in. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/436911
Malaysiakini (2018a). About Malaysiakini. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/pg/MalaysiaKini/about/?ref=page_internal
Malaysiakini (2018b). Shareholders. Retrieved from https://about.malaysiakini.com/accountability/
Manhit, D. (2017, May 22). More than throwing money at a problem. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://opinion.inquirer.net/104184/throwing-money-problem
Martina, M. (2018, February 17). China’s Hui Muslims fearful CNY education ban a sign of curbs to come. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/412546
Matsa, K. E., and Lu, K. (2016). ‘10 facts about the changing digital news landscape’, Pew Research Center, September 2016. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/14/facts-about-the-changing-digital-news-landscape/, 14 November 2017.
MCA (2015, September 2). Party Constitution & Objectives. Retrieved from http://www.mca.org.my/2/Content/SinglePage?_param1=18-052018-35-05-201818&_param2=M
Media Prima (2018). Corporate Structure. Retrieved from https://www.mediaprima.com.my/corporate-structure/
MIDF Research (2016 September 13). Star Media Group Berhad. Retrieved from http://www.midf.com.my/images/Downloads/Research/Equity/Star/Star-Streamlining-its-business-operations-MIDF-130916.pdf
Miwil, O. (2017, September 22). China's achievements should inspire neighbouring developing countries. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2017/09/282851/chinas-achievements-should-inspire-neighbouring-developing-countries
National Development and Reform Commission (2015). Vision and Actions on Jointly Building Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. Retrieved from http://www.ndrc.gov.cn/gzdt/201503/t20150330_669392.html
Neuman, W. R., Just, M. R., & Crigler, A. N. (1992). Common knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
New York Times (2018, January 13). Chinese investors snap up homes in Cambodia. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/cambodia-finds-new-target-for-real-estate-investors-from-china
Ngah, I. (2011). Challenges of Regional Development in Malaysia in the Globalization Context. International Conference on Regional Development, Vulnerability, Resilience, and Sustainability. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283078879_Challenges_of_Regional_Development_in_Malaysia_in_the_Globalization_Context
Nie, W. (2016). Xi Jinping’s Foreign Policy Dilemma: One Belt, One Road or the South China Sea? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 38(3), p. 422–44.
OEC (2018a). What does the Philippines import from China? (2016). Retrieved from https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/visualize/tree_map/hs92/import/phl/chn/show/2016/
OEC (2018b). What does Malaysia export? Retrieved from https://atlas.media.mit.edu/en/visualize/tree_map/hs92/export/mys/all/show/2016/
OEC (2018c). What does Singapore import from China? Retrieved from
Ogilvy, G. (2018, April 9). Agriculture entrepreneurs urged to set sights on China market. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/metro/metro-news/2018/04/09/agriculture-entrepreneurs-urged-to-set-sights-on-china-market/
Okutsu, A. (2018 April 9). Singapore signs deal with China on Belt and Road. Retrieved from https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-Relations/Singapore-signs-deal-with-China-on-Belt-and-Road
Ongcal, A. (2018, August 1). In Photos: 6 Chinese ships guarding Panatag Shoal. Rappler. Received from https://www.rappler.com/nation/208655-photos-chinese-ships-guarding-scarborough-shoal
Pan, M. (2018, May 22). Singapore commits to role in Belt and Road Initiative. China Daily. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201805/22/WS5b0376a3a3103f6866ee9ccb.html
Pan, Z. & Kosicki, G. M. (1993). Framing Analysis: An Approach to News Discourse. Political Communication, 10, p. 55-75.
Parameswaran, P. (2015 March 6). Malaysia's South China Sea Policy: Playing It Safe. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2015/03/malaysias-south-china-sea-policy-playing-it-safe/
Parameswaran, P. (2015 March 29). Did China Vessels Encroach Malaysia’s Waters? The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2016/03/did-china-vessels-encroach-malaysias-waters/
Parameswaran, P. (2015 June 9). Malaysia Responds to China’s South China Sea Intrusion. The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2015/06/malaysia-responds-to-chinas-south-china-sea-intrusion/
Parameswaran, P. (2017, May 5). Why Did China’s Warships Visit the Philippines? The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/why-did-chinas-warships-visit-the-philippines/
Parker, M. (2016 October 31). Way open for more trade with China. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/2016/10/184553/way-open-more-trade-china
Paul, T. V. (2018, May 22). Time to declare South China Sea a zone of peace. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2018/05/371792/time-declare-south-china-sea-zone-peace
PCA (2016). Press Release of the South China Sea Arbitration (The Republic of the Philippines V. The People’s Republic of China). Retrieved from https://pca-cpa.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/175/2016/07/PH-CN-20160712-Press-Release-No-11-English.pdf
People’s Daily (2017, May 14). China capable of maintaining financial market stability: Premier Li. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/05/15/china-capable-of-maintaining-financial-market-stability-premier-li/
Perlmutter, D. D. (1998). Photojournalism and foreign policy: Icons of outrage in international crises. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Petersen (2018, December 3). Philippines journalist Maria Ressa vows to challenge tax fraud charges after arrest. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/dec/03/philippines-journalist-maria-ressa-turn-herself-in-police-warrant-rappler
Pew Research Center (2017). Opinion of the United States. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from
Philippine Daily Inquirer (2016, July 4). China funding initiative. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from https://opinion.inquirer.net/95492/china-funding-initiative
Philippine News Agency (2017, May 4). China to work with ASEAN for full implementation of DOC. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/05/04/china-to-work-with-asean-for-full-implementation-of-doc/
Placido, D. (2017, March 9). Chinese survey ship spotted in Benham Rise, says defense chief. ABS-CBN News. Retrieved from http://news.abs-cbn.com/news/03/09/17/chinese-survey-ship-spotted-in-benham-rise-says-defense-chief
Polin, T. H. W. (2017, May 30). 'China no longer regards Singapore as a friend'. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2017/05/244136/china-no-longer-regards-singapore-friend
Poushter, J. & Bishop, C. (2017, September 21). People in the Philippines Still Favor U.S. Over China, but Gap Is Narrowing. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/09/21/people-in-the-philippines-still-favor-u-s-over-china-but-gap-is-narrowing/
Punongbayan, J. C (2018, March 3). [OPINION] What scares me the most about China’s new, ‘friendly’ loans. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/197207-china-loans-philippines-fears
Punongbayan, J. C. (2018, March 22). The glaring double standard in Duterte’s Boracay shutdown. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/198704-double-standard-duterte-order-boracay-closure
Quismorio, E. (2017, November 12). Concepcion: China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ worth emulating. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/11/12/concepcion-chinas-one-belt-one-road-worth-emulating/
Ranada, P. (2017, May 15). Duterte joins Belt and Road talks with 28 other leaders. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/169931-philippines-duterte-china-belt-road-forum-leaders-summit
Rappler (2016, December 21). Duterte: San Miguel's Ramon Ang was campaign donor. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/156233-ramon-ang-duterte-campaign-donor
Rappler (2017, May 21). Duterte: China 'sincere' about commitments to PH. Rapple.com. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/169955-duterte-china-sincere-commitments-philippines
Rappler (2018, May 21). Geopolitics, Duterte-style. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/views/animated/202872-duterte-relations-china-geopolitics
Rappler & AFP (2017, May 14). Duterte joins China summit on new Silk Road. Rappler.com. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/nation/169779-duterte-china-belt-road-forum
Rasid, A. H. (2017, May 8). Bid to shore up halal exports. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/business/2017/05/237292/bid-shore-halal-exports
Rauhala, E. (2018, January 15). Philippine authorities move to shut down media site critical of Duterte. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/philippine-authorities-move-to-shut-down-media-site-critical-of-duterte/2018/01/15/bc173a78-f9d7-11e7-b832-8c26844b74fb_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.255a88953917
Reporters Without Borders (2019). Singapore. Retrieved from https://rsf.org/en/singapore
Reuters (2015, December 30). Philippines to join China-backed AIIB infrastructure bank. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-asia-aiib-philippines-idUSKBN0UD0AT20151230
Reuters (2016, March 1). China's bold One Belt, One Road project eyes Australia detour. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/2016/03/130358/chinas-bold-one-belt-one-road-project-eyes-australia-detour
Reuters (2017, February 3). China says 'Silk Road' push will counter "isolationism". New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/2017/02/209233/china-says-silk-road-push-will-counter-isolationism
Reuters (2017, May 16). Cash and chemicals: Chinese banana boom a blessing and curse in Laos. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/lifestyle/food/cash-and-chemicals-chinese-banana-boom-a-blessing-and-curse-in-laos
Reuters (2017, May 18). Philippines declines aid from Europe to assert independence: official. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-eu-aid/philippines-declines-aid-from-europe-to-assert-independence-official-idUSKCN18D273
Reuters (2017, December 11). Sri Lanka hands port formally to Chinese firm. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2017/12/11/sri-lanka-hands-port-formally-to-chinese-firm/
Reuters (2018, January 8). Coal dwarfs battery metals in mining deals despite war on pollution. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.pressreader.com/malaysia/the-star-malaysia-starbiz/20180108/textview
Reuters (2018, May 27). Malaysia to renegotiate ECRL terms - Dr M. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/05/373682/malaysia-renegotiate-ecrl-terms-dr-m
Reuters (2018, July 5). Malaysia investigates China-backed project links with 1MDB: Official. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/malaysia-investigates-china-backed-project-links-with-1mdb-official
Reuters (2018, August 15). China-linked cyberattacks likely as Malaysia reviews projects - Security firm. New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/08/401687/china-linked-cyberattacks-likely-malaysia-reviews-projects-security-firm
Reuters (2018, August 21). Empty hotels, idle boats: What happens when a Pacific island upsets China. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/08/21/empty-hotels-idle-boats-what-happens-when-a-pacific-island-upsets-china/
Reuters (2019, January 26). Malaysia to cancel $20 billion China-backed rail project: minister. Retrieved from
Reuters Institute (2017). Digital News Report 2017 – Malaysia. Retrieved from http://www.digitalnewsreport.org/survey/2017/malaysia-2017/
Robinson, P. (1999). The CNN Effect: Can the News Media Drive Foreign Policy? Review of International Studies, 25, p. 301–309.
Rodis, R. (2017, June 8). Why China will declare war if PH drills for oil. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://usa.inquirer.net/4314/china-will-declare-war-ph-drills-oil?utm_expid=.XqNwTug2W6nwDVUSgFJXed.1
Reyes, D. (2018, May 10). 15 Chinese ships ‘regularly visiting’ 3 main reefs in West Philippine Sea–US think tank. The Manilla Times. Retrieved from https://www.manilatimes.net/15-chinese-navy-coast-guard-ships-regularly-visiting-3-main-reefs-in-west-philippine-sea-us-think-tank/397978/
Sabillo, K. A. (2017, May 22). Palace insists Duterte not giving up PH sovereign rights. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://globalnation.inquirer.net/157090/palace-insists-duterte-not-giving-ph-sovereign-rights
Sambrook, R. (2010). Are Foreign Correspondents Redundant? The changing face of international news. Retrieved from https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2017-12/Are%20Foreign%20Correspondents%20Redundant%20The%20changing%20face%20of%20international%20news.pdf
Sani, R. (2017, November 29). Sea of career opportunities. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/education/2017/11/308713/sea-career-opportunities
Scheufele, D. A. (1999). ‘Framing As a Theory of Media Effects’, Journal of Communication, 49 (1), pp. 103–122.
Semetko, H. and Valkenburg, P. (2000). Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication 50(2), p.93–109.
Sharma, M. (2018, May 29). China proving to be an expensive date for Pakistan. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/china-proving-to-be-an-expensive-date-for-pakistan
Shi, J. T. (2016, July 9). China has no intention of challenging international order, say former diplomats. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/1987376/china-has-no-intention-challenging-international-order
Shi, X. Y. (2018). Contrastive Analysis of Discursive Representations of One Belt One Road Initiative by Foreign Media – A Corpus-based Semantic Prosody Study. Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing (Social Sciences Edition), 34(1), p.18-25.
Shoemaker, P., & Reese, S. D. (1996). Mediating the message: Theories of influences on mass media content (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Longman.
Shoemaker, P., & Reese, S. D. (2014). Mediating the message in the 21st century: A media sociology perspective. New York, NY: Routledge.
Shoemaker, P., & Reese, S. D. (2016). A Media Sociology for the Networked Public Sphere: The Hierarchy of Influences Model. Mass Communication and Society, 19, p. 389–410. Retrieved from https://journalism.utexas.edu/sites/default/files/reese%20%26%20shoemaker%20media%20sociology%20essay.pdf
Shum, S. and Liu, C. (2017). ‘Ad Spending in Southeast Asia’, eMarketer. Retrieved from https://iab.sg/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/AdSpend-Report.pdf, 14 November 2017.
Singapore Press Holdings (2017, October 3). Main Shareholders. Retrieved from http://sph.listedcompany.com/main_shareholder.html
Singapore Press Holdings (2018). Annual Report. Retrieved from https://www.sph.com.sg/investor-relations/financial-results/annual-report/
Son, J. (2017, November 12). ASEAN likes, but also fears, China's economic weight. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/thought-leaders/188131-asean-likes-fears-china-economic-weight
Soong, K. K. (2017, December 19). How will China investments impact GE14? Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/405914
Sundaram, J. K. (2017, August 11). ECRL folly bound to fail and burden the nation. Malaysiakini. Retrieved from https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/391563
Tadem, E. C. (2017, May 29). Red flags on government debts. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://opinion.inquirer.net/104375/red-flags-government-debts
Tai, M. (2016, December 13). Singapore's China Conundrum. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2016/12/singapores-china-conundrum/
Tai, Y. C. & Low, Y.F. (2016, September 5). Cabinet launches plan to promote 'New Southbound Policy'. Focus Taiwan. Retrieved from http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201609050009.aspx
The Economist Intelligence Unit (2017). China Going Global Investment Index 2017 – Overall country rankings, p.3. Retrieved from http://pages.eiu.com/rs/753-RIQ-438/images/ODI_in_China_2017_English.pdf
The Nation (2017, October 19). What Xi Jinping’s second term can bring Asean. Inquirer through Asia News Network. Retrieved from https://opinion.inquirer.net/108020/xi-jinpings-second-term-can-bring-asean
The Philippine Government (2016). The Philippines. Retrieved from http://pages.eiu.com/rs/753-RIQ-438/images/ODI_in_China_2017_English.pdf
The Star (2006, October 18). Huaren Holdings to sell 21% stake in Nanyang. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2006/10/18/huaren-holdings-to-sell-21-stake-in-nanyang/
The Star (2017, June 3). PM: Sovereignty will never be compromised. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2017/06/03/pm-sovereignty-will-never-be-compromised/
The Star (2018). Our Brands. Retrieved from: http://starmediagroup.my/our-brands/
The Star (2018, February 10). MCA launches Belt and Road 2.0. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/02/10/mca-launches-belt-and-road-20-liow-new-initiative-will-further-strengthen-msiachina-relations/
The Star (2018, June 21). Dr M: Nothing to fear from China but lopsided deals must end. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2018/06/21/nothing-to-fear-from-china-says-dr-m-but-lopsided-deals-must-end/
The Star (2018, August 23). China affirms friendly ties with M’sia will be maintained. The Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/08/23/china-affirms-friendly-ties-with-msia-will-be-maintained/
The Straits Times (2016, August 21). ST Future Economy Roundtable: 3 Risks and positive trends for Asia. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/3-risks-and-positive-trends-for-asia
The Straits Times (2015, October 3). Grasp opportunities of new Silk Roads. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/grasp-opportunities-of-new-silk-roads
Tiglao, G. (2018, September 26). The people have spoken: Filipinos support Duterte’s
drug war. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2018/09/26/the-people-have-spoken-filipinos-support-dutertes-drug-war/
Toh, E. (2017, August 28). Singapore well-positioned to make gains in game-
changing Belt and Road: Shanmugam. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/politics/singapore-well-positioned-to-make-gains-in-game-changing-belt-and-road-shanmugam
Tomacruz, S. (2017, July 18). FAST FACTS: What you should know about the Inquirer Group. Rappler. Retrieved from https://www.rappler.com/business/175896-fast-facts-philippine-daily-inquirer-prieto-family
Tong, S.Y. & Kong, T.Y. (2018). Singapore’s Role in the Belt and Road Initiative. In: Arduino A., Gong X. (eds) Securing the Belt and Road Initiative. Palgrave, Singapore.
Torode, G. (2017, August 8). China leaning on Singapore to keep ASEAN calm over South China Sea: sources. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-asean-china-singapore-analysis/china-leaning-on-singapore-to-keep-asean-calm-over-south-china-sea-sources-idUSKBN1AO17D
Tracy, E. F., Shvarts, E., Simonov, E. & Babenko, M. (2017). China’s new Eurasian ambitions: the environmental risks of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Eurasian
Geography and Economics, 58(1), p. 56-88, DOI: 10.1080/15387216.2017.1295876
United Nations (2018). Total Population by sex (thousands). World Population Prospects 2017. Retrieved from https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/DataQuery/
Van Gorp, B. (2005). Where is the Frame?: Victims and Intruders in the Belgium Press Coverage of the Asylum Issue. European Journal of Communication, 20, p.484-507. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Baldwin_Gorp/publication/233399476_Where_is_the_Frame/links/0deec52e6a7768e9eb000000/Where-is-the-Frame.pdf?origin=publication_detail
Van Gorp, B. (2007). The Constructionist Approach to Framing:
Bringing Culture Back In. Journal of Communication, 57, p. 60–78.
Van Gorp, B. (2012). Frames and counter-frames giving meaning to dementia: A framing analysis of media content. Social Science & Medicine, 74, p. 1274-1281.
Velasco, A. N. O. (2017, July 13). Indian think tank to Manila: Beware of Beijing-funded projects. Inquirer. Retrieved from https://globalnation.inquirer.net/158772/indian-think-tank-manila-beware-beijing-funded-projects?fbclid=IwAR1XqlwH-BkH1bOXrXvuLuNiiIxjrUBV6lj91wn6a1VVHE_mGn3cgTdgwOs
VERA Files & Reporters without Borders (2016a). Media Ownership Monitor Philippines. Retrieved from https://philippines.mom-rsf.org/en/media/print/
VERA Files & Reporters without Borders (2016b). The Yap Family. Retrieved from https://philippines.mom-rsf.org/en/owners/individual-owners/detail/owner/owner/show/the-yap-family/
Villar, M. (2017, May 30). One belt, one road, 68 countries. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved from https://news.mb.com.ph/2017/05/30/one-belt-one-road-68-countries/
Wahl-Jorgensen, K. (2008). Op-ed pages. In: Franklin B (ed.) Pulling Newspapers Apart. New York: Routledge.
Washington Post (2018, March 31). Cambodian port city's Little China. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/cambodian-port-citys-little-china
Wang, T. (2016). A Corpus-based Contrastive Study of News Reports on “the Belt
and Road” from Chinese and American Newspapers – A Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective.
Whaley, F. (2012, April 29). Philippines Role May Expand as U.S. Adjusts Asia Strategy. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/30/world/asia/philippines-role-may-grow-as-us-adjusts-asia-strategy.html
Wong, C. (2016, August 16). Chinese diplomat tells Singapore to stay out of South China Sea disputes. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/2004638/china-urges-singapore-not-interfere-south-china-sea
Wong, N. (2012). Malaysian Media: Ownership and Control. Retrieved from https://prezi.com/ipwyx7mwkasp/malaysian-media-ownership-and-control/
Workman, D. (2018). Top Trading Partners. World’s Top Exports. Received from http://www.worldstopexports.com/category/trade-partners/top-partners/
World Bank (2018). Data for Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines. Retrieved from https://data.worldbank.org/?locations=SG-MY-PH
Wu, S. & Ren, H. (2003). More Than a Declaration: A Commentary on the Background and the Significance of the Declaration on the Conduct of the Parties in the South China Sea. Chinese Journal of International Law, 2(1), p.311–319. Retrieved from https://academic.oup.com/chinesejil/article-abstract/2/1/311/358044?redirectedFrom=PDF
Xinhua (2017, May 5). Commentary: Don’t miss the opportunities afforded by Belt & Road. Xinhua. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-05/05/c_136260555.htm
Xinhua (2017, June 23). Interview: China's Hong Kong can help Philippines realize infrastructure ambition. Xinhua. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-06/23/c_136389983.htm
Xinhua (2017, September 21). Chinese vice premier stresses media role in Belt and Road Initiative. Xinhua. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-09/21/c_136627362_2.htm, 2 December 2017.
Xinhua (2017, October 24). ‘Belt and Road’ incorporated into CPC Constitution. Xinhua. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-10/24/c_136702025.htm, 22 November 2017.
Yin, J., Yang, X., Zheng, X., Jiao, N. (2017). Analysis of the investment security of the accommodation industry for countries along the B&R: An empirical study based on panel data. Tourism Economics. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314492536_Analysis_of_the_investment_security_of_the_accommodation_industry_for_countries_along_the_BR_An_empirical_study_based_on_panel_data
Yusof, T. A. (2017 October 28). Govt to identify ways to export bird's nest products directly to China, says Shabery Cheek. New Straits Times. Retrieve from
Zhai, K. & Chong, P. K. (2017, August 1). Chinese Money Pouring Into Malaysia. Bloomberg via New Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/business/2017/08/263012/chinese-money-pouring-malaysia
Zhang, L. M. (2018, April 8). Presence of US Navy is important: Commander. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/presence-of-us-navy-is-important-commander
Zhao, H. (2018, January 19). ‘Shared future’ can change world. China Daily. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201801/19/WS5a6148aaa3106e7dcc1353d5.html
Zhu, F. (2016, October 7). China's South China Sea stance must be able to withstand the Singapore test. The Strait Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/chinas-s-china-sea-stance-must-be-able-to-withstand-the-spore-test
4 International Media & Newspapers (2017). Newspapers in Asia. Retrieved from https://www.4imn.com/Asia/
4traders (2018). Star Media Group Bhd (Star). Retrieved from http://www.4-traders.com/STAR-MEDIA-GROUP-BHD-6491325/
Bai, G. and Osman, E. (2016). Turkish Media and Social Cognition of “The Belt and Road”. Journal of Hebei University (Philosophy and Social Science), 41(2), p. 102-106. Retrieved from http://xb-zsb.hbu.cn/CN/abstract/abstract50.shtml
Chen, J. and Xu, P. Y. (2015). One Belt and One Road in the View of Arab Media
—Taking into Account Chinese Media’s Public Diplomacy to Arab States. Journal of Hui Muslim Minority Studies, 99, p.119~125. Retrieved from http://www.spda.org.cn/content/2015-12/01/content_7636009.htm
Chung, W. W., Tsang, K. J., Chen, Y. N., Po, S. L., Wang, C. M. (1996). Re-exploring Frame Theory: A case study on playing pornography by Taiwan University’s Women Studies Club. Proceedings of the 60th Anniversary of NCCU Journalism Education, p. 181-223.
Han, M. (2017). Comparative Study on News Frame of the Belt And Road. Retrieved from http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-11910-1017728506.htm
Hsieh, J. W. & Hsu, M. L. (2011). Framing of Scientific Development and Risks: A News Analysis of Genetically Modified Foods in Taiwan. Chinese Journal of Communication Research, 20, p.143-179.
Li, X. K. and Yan, G. J. (2015). A Research on “One Belt and One Union” in the Perspective of Russian Media. Northeast Asia Forum, 123, p. 115-128. Retrieved from http://big5.oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?dbCode=cjfd&QueryID=13&CurRec=11&filename=DBYL201601016&dbname=CJFDLAST2016
Li, X. W. & An, S. S. (2017). Analysis of Reporting Framework about “The Belt and Road” International Cooperation Peak BBS Dominated by Russian and Mongolian Media. Retrieved from http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-HBDX201706023.htm
Liu, Y. T. (2017). Research on the Interactive Construction of China’s National Image under the Context of “One Belt One Road” Initiative.
Liu, Y. H. and Liu, H. Q. (2015). The Communication Effect Research of Chinese Culture in Major Kyrgyzstani Media. Journal of South-Central University for Nationalities ( Humanities and Social Sciences), 35(6), p. 172-175. Retrieved from http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=znmzdxxb-rwshkxb201506032
Nie, B. (2017). An analysis of reports on the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank by Vietnamese state-owned media – a case study on the news from Vietnam News Agency’s website. Southeast Asian Affairs, 169, p. 51-61. Retrieved from http://mall.cnki.net/magazine/Article/LYWT201701005.htm
Sun, Y. and Sun, Y. J. (2017). A study on the imbalance of news frames in Belt and Road Forum reports by American media. Journal of News Research, 21, p.74-75. Retrieved from http://cnki.sris.com.tw.autorpa.lib.nccu.edu.tw/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?recid=&FileName=XWDK201721045&DbName=CJFD2017&DbCode=CJFD&uid=WEhuVGNtd250VjNJSklOZFRxaTMvUlpDdEdHQ3dnekFlNW56VEZUQWlZb1A2dnU0
Tsang, K. J. & Chung, W. W. (1997). Media Framing as Public Relations Strategies. The Journal of Advertising Research, 9, p.99-130
Tsang, K. J., Chung, W. W., Huang, Y. H. (1997). Interaction between News Media and Public Relations (News Source) in Chan, J. M., Chu, L. & Pan, Z. D.’s Mass Media and Market Economy, p.141-183. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Tsang, K. J. (1998). News Reporting & News Construction: A News Framing Perspective. Communication Research Monographs, 3, p.1-102. Retrieved from http://ccs.nccu.edu.tw/word/HISTORY_PAPER_FILES/950_1.pdf
Tsang, K. J. (1999). News media & news source: Discourse on media frames and news construction. Sanmin: Taipei.
Wang, C. (2016). Research on News Frame of the Belt and Road.
Wang, H. Z. (2017). A Comparative Study of the ‘Belt and Road’ Reports between China Daily and China Daily USA.
Wang, S. F. (1989). Content analysis in communication – Theory and empirical analysis. Youth: Taipei.
Xinhua (2017 May 14). Full text of President Xi's speech at opening of Belt and Road forum. Xinhuanet. Retrieved from http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-05/14/c_136282982.htm
Yao, Y. J. (2018). The News Frame Research of the “People’s Daily”’s “The Belt and Road” Special Reports. Retrieved from http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10755-1017712720.htm
Yu, H. (2017). ‘Motivation behind China’s “One Belt, One Road” Initiatives and
Establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank’, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 26, No. 105, 353–368.
Zheng, H. & Li, J. (2016). ‘One Belt One Road’ Strategy Constructed by US Media –
Case Study on the Related Reports of the New York Times and the Washington Post. Journal of SUIBE, 23(1), p.87-96.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1044640131|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.