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    题名: 動態競爭之研究 : 以Walmart和Amazon為例
    Dynamic Competition Analysis - A Case Study of Amazon and Walmart
    作者: 莊竣皓
    Chuang, Chun-Hao
    贡献者: 邱奕嘉
    Chiu, Yi-Chia
    莊竣皓
    Chuang, Chun-Hao
    关键词: 動態競爭
    市場共通性
    資源相似性
    AMC觀點
    Amazon
    Walmart
    Dynamic competition
    Market commonality
    Resource similarity
    AMC theory
    Walmart
    Amazon
    日期: 2019
    上传时间: 2019-03-07 11:27:41 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 在2017年,美國平均每個月都有兩家零售業者宣告破產,且大多都有營業超過五十年的歷史,包括陪伴多數人長大的童年回憶玩具反斗城(Toys R US);時代的躍進與科技帶來的變革讓許多實體零售業者經營出現困境。此時,亞馬遜(Amazon)反其道而行,於2015年11月在西雅圖開了第一間實體書店Amazon Books,更在2017年6月宣布以137億美元併購在全美擁有460間門市的生鮮超市Whole Foods Market;同一時間,實體零售霸主Walmart像忽然覺醒一樣,於2016年開始積極經營線上市場,接連併購了7間線上電商及線上服飾品牌,也積極的回應Amazon在市場上的競爭,線上與線下霸主的競爭態勢明顯的升高,雙方都積極的踏入對方過去擅長的領域。
    相較一般學術論文以SWOT分析、五力分析等靜態分析研究,本研究希望藉由動態競爭理論的觀點,以互動的方式來分析Amazon與Walmart之間的競爭關係;首先藉由文獻探討與蒐集次級資料的方式完成競爭者分析,其次依據新聞資料庫的數據整理出雙方競爭過程中的行動與回應,藉此希望能了解雙方的競爭態勢及行動回應的模式。
    本研究發現在2015年時,雙方的市場共通性因為雙方營收集中於特定幾個地區而顯得較高,在營運數值、成本結構以及資源佈署的資源相似性則因兩者的規模、營運方式、技術佈署有差異而使得資源的相似性較低。經2016年到2018年,在雙方做出諸多競爭行為後,兩者的商品類別之市場共通性明顯的提升,資源相似性也因為併購行為而使兩者的營運規模及成本結構愈趨相似而提升。而由於資源稟賦及多年的資本投資差異,Walmart在面對Amazon的競爭行為時,常常需要藉由併購或與外部合作取得資源後,才有能力做出回應,從過去制定規則、引領實體零售規則的霸主,轉成了新零售時代的挑戰者。
    In 2017, two US retailers declared bankruptcy every month on average, and most of them have a history of more than 50 years, including everyone’s childhood memory Toys R US. The changes from generation and technology have caused many physical retailers to run into difficulties. At this time, Amazon is doing the opposite. In November 2015, it opened the first physical bookstore Amazon Books in Seattle. Also in June 2017, it announced a $13.7 billion acquisition of 460 stores supermarket Whole Foods in the United States. At the same time, Walmart, the physical retail tyrant, suddenly became active in the online market. It has successively acquired 7 online e-commerce and online apparel brands, and actively responded to Amazon's competition in the market. The competitive situation between online and offline hegemons has obviously increased, and both sides have actively stepped into the areas that the other party used to be good at.
    Compared with the static analysis like SWOT analysis or five-force model in general academic papers, this study hopes to analyze the competitive relationship between Amazon and Walmart in an interactive way through the perspective of dynamic competition theory. First, through the literature discussion and the collection of secondary data completes the competitor analysis; second, analysis the data from the news database to sort out the actions and responses in the competition process, hope to understand the competitive situation and the mode of action response.
    The study found that in 2015, the market commonality between the two parties was higher since the revenue of them were highly overlapped in certain areas. Also in 2015, the resource similarity between the two parties was lower since the operational value, cost structure and patent resource were different between them due to the difference in the scale and operation mode.
    From 2016 to 2018, due to the competitive behaviors between two parties, the market commonality of the commodity categories increased significantly. Also, the degree of similarity of resources increased because of the M&A cases which made the operation scale and cost structure of the two companies become more similar. Due to the difference in endowment and years of capital investment, Walmart often needs to obtain resources through M&A or external cooperation, in order to respond to competition from Amazon. Consequently, Amazon turned into a challenger in the new retail era from the overlord who made and lead the rules of a physical retailer.
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    網路新聞
     Wal-Mart seeks to test drones for home delivery pickup, Retrieved December 7 2018,from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-wal-mart-stores-drones-exclusive/exclusive-wal-mart-seeks-to-test-drones-for-home-delivery-pickup-idUSKCN0SK2IQ20151027
     Walmart Looks to Drones to Speed Distribution, Retrieved December 7 2018,from: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/03/business/walmart-looks-to-drones-to-speed-distribution.html?_r=1
     Walmart is asking employees to deliver packages on their way home from work, Retrieved December 7 2018,from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/business/wp/2017/06/01/walmart-is-asking-employees-to-deliver-packages-on-their-way-home-from-work/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.7b98daeebc77
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     Walmart will Uber and Lyft your groceries to you, Retrieved December 11 2018,from: https://bgr.com/2016/06/03/walmart-uber-lyft-groceries-program/
     Now Featured on Wal-Mart’s Website: Higher Prices Than Stores, Retrieved December 11 2018,from: https://www.wsj.com/articles/now-featured-on-wal-marts-website-higher-prices-1510517219
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    合併為例。國立政治大學科技管理與智慧財產研究所碩士論文,臺北市。
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理與智慧財產研究所
    105364116
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1053641161
    数据类型: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.TIIPM.008.2019.F08
    显示于类别:[科技管理與智慧財產研究所] 學位論文

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