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    題名: 論能源安全措施是否可透過WTO協定國家安全例外條款正當化
    On the Legitimacy of Relying on the National Security Exception Clauses in the WTO Agreements to Justify Energy Security Measures
    作者: 郝晏緯
    Hao, Yen-Wei
    貢獻者: 施文真
    Shih, Wen-Chen
    郝晏緯
    Hao, Yen-Wei
    關鍵詞: 能源安全
    能源安全措施
    WTO協定國家安全例外
    WTO
    Energy security
    Energy security measures
    the WTO’s national security exception clauses
    WTO
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2019-02-12 15:40:18 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 各國往往須透過政府管制或國營事業介入市場之方式,保障其能源安全。然能源安全措施之實施可能因限制能源產品或能源服務之自由貿易,而涉及WTO之法律原則。由於能源安全可能被各國視為國家安全政策中非常重要的一環,故本文旨在探討若能源安全措施遭認定違反WTO之法律原則,實施措施之WTO會員可否透過WTO協定之國家安全例外條款正當化。

    經本文分析後發現,國家安全例外條款之適用限縮於軍事、戰爭或國防等若干極為特殊之情況下,多數能源安全措施實施之對象或背景未必能與該等條件相吻合,因此本文以為能源安全措施於國家安全例外條款取得正當性之可行性不高。本文建議,會員於擬定可能涉及WTO法律原則之能源安全措施時,應於其法律文件或相關立法資料中闡明若干與GATT第21條(b)款或GATS第14條之1(b)款相關之事由,使會員在未來欲依該條款提出抗辯時,得以出具有利之事證,以示其符合國家安全例外條款之法律要件。
    It is common that every country across the globe needs to protect its energy security by either establishing governmental control or intervening in its market systems through state-owned enterprises. Yet, when implementing control measures for energy security, a country may tread into the realm of WTO legal principles as a result of its control measures restricting free trade of energy products or services. Given that some governments would uphold energy security as an indispensable part of its national security policy, the present paper seeks to answer the question: can a WTO member, whose energy security measures allegedly violated WTO rules, legitimize such violation by citing the national security exception clauses in the WTO agreements?

    Analysis of the results showed that the exception clauses were only applicable under certain circumstances such as for military needs, wars, or national defense. As such, given the subject or contexts of the respective measures, most currently-applied measures for energy security would be deemed inconsistent with the aforementioned conditions. Accordingly, this paper concluded that the national security exception clauses can hardly be used to buttress energy security measures. Instead, this paper proposes that WTO members, when articulating energy policies that might violate WTO principles, should specify the prescribed circumstances mentioned within Paragraph (b), Article XXI of GATT or Paragraph (b), Article XIV bis of GATS when stipulating their legal instruments and pertinent documents. By doing so, the member would be able to predicate its counter-argument upon the suggested-provision. This would be regarded as advantageous legal evidence and helpful for proving its consistency with the requirements of the national security exception clauses.
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    網際網路
    Frances Hadfield & Yun Gao, President Imposes Section 232 Steel and Aluminum Duties on Imports from the European Union, Canada, and Mexico, Crowell & Moring (June 22, 2018), https://www.cmtradelaw.com/2018/06/section-232-investigation-on-imports-of-autos-and-auto-parts-comment-period-extended/.
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    Michael Joyce, Paul Greening, Kitty Y.C. Ng, Tatman R. Savio & Stephen S. Kho, Everything You Need to Know About the Australian Domestic Gas Security Mechanism — What Does This Mean for Australian LNG Exporters and Corporations Importing from Them?, Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld (June 28. 2017), https://www.akingump.com/en/experience/industries/energy/speaking-energy/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-australian-domestic-gas.html.
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    WTO爭端解決案例相關文件
    Appellate Body Report, Brazil — Measures Affecting Imports of Retreaded Tyres, WTO Doc. WT/DS332/AB/R (adopted Dec. 17, 2007).
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    其他研究報告
    Gas Statement of Opportunities: For Eastern and South Eastern Australia, The Australian Energy Market Operator (Mar. 2017).
    Kateryna Holzer, Regulatory Aspects and Public International Law Issues of the Construction of Cross Border Electricity Networks, Paper Presentation at 10th Annual Trade Conference, Trade Policy Training Center in Africa (Nov. 2015).
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    Mireille Cossy, Energy Transport and Transit in the WTO, Paper Presentation at Conference on Global Challenges at the Intersection of Trade, Energy and the Environment, Centre for Trade and Economic Integration at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Oct. 23, 2009).
    Shahrzad Fazeli, Restrictions on Trade for Security Reasons: A Legal Analysis of the Scope of Article XXI of the GATT in light of the Ukraine Crisis and the EU Sanctions on the Export of Dual-Use Goods to Russia 55, Master’s Thesis in WTO Law at Department of Law at Uppsala University (2015).
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易學系
    105351052
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1053510521
    資料類型: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.IB.001.2019.F06
    顯示於類別:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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