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    Title: 論《儀禮》之禮例研究法—以鄭玄、賈公彥、淩廷堪為討論中心
    On the Research Methods of Ritual Rules in YILI:Focus on Zheng Xuan, Jia Gongyan and Ling Tingkan’s Interpretation
    Authors: 鄭雯馨
    Contributors: 中文系
    Keywords: YILI;Ritual Rules;Zheng Xuan;Jia Gongyan;Ling Tingkan
    儀禮;禮例;鄭玄;賈公彥;淩廷堪
    Date: 2018
    Issue Date: 2019-01-18 09:28:02 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: There is a huge variety and diversity of research methods of Confucian Classics, rules is one of them. This thesis takes Yili (儀禮) as the main object of research, examining how ritual ruless are defined and applied in Zheng Xuan's (鄭玄) “Yili Annotation” (儀禮注), in Jia Gongyan's (賈公彥) Yili Shu (儀禮疏), and in Ling Tingkan's (淩廷堪) Lijing shili (禮經釋例). After synthesising and analysing various examples and notes, here is the summary of the results of my research and the questions I would like to propose. First: definitions and evolutions of ritual ruless. Ritual rules are rules of rituals with inevitability, including ritual meanings and ritual forms. Ritual ruless can also regulate behaviours and rectify values, with time they become a point of reference, as conventions for dealing new situations. After comparing three Li classic texts—Yili Annotation (儀禮注), Yili Shu (儀禮疏), and Lijing shili (禮經釋例), I found that since the establishment of Confucian Classics in Han dynasty, the ritual ruless have had the following changes under the notion that "Zhou Gong established the rites of Zhou": the source of ritual ruless have changed from usual daily practices to referencing the classic of Yili; the nature of ritual ruless have changed from conventions to references found by comparing different classic texts; the content of ritual ruless have changed from including both ritual meanings and ritual forms to focusing mainly on ritual forms; the scope of ritual ruless ranges from small single ritual behaviour to large, complete set procedure of ritual ceremonies. Thus we can conclude that after the establishment of Confucian Classics, annotators considered Yili the trace of Zhou Gong with which he lead the world to peace, and the collection of ancient experiences (conventions). Therefore, the ritual ceremonies recorded in Yili can also be seen as rules and regulations. Second: functions of ritual ruless. From the point of view that rules must have inevitability, all ritual ceremonies have specific rules of procedure, performers, time and place, etc. Taking this as the reference point, annotators used different methods such as comparison, classification and inferring to interpret classic texts in the following ways: 1. to compare and correct classic texts such as errors of written word and pronunciation, superfluous words, missing words, etc. 2. to discriminate and authenticate former scholarly opinions. 3. to classify the type, the language, and the class of ritual ceremonies. 4. to infer the ritual details not recorded in the text to complete the ritual forms. 5. the inevitability of rules reflects the existence of social and political systems. Therefore we can use ritual ruless to interpret as well as evaluate the practices of rituals and their developments and/or reductions in other classic texts. With the concept that ritual limit lies in transitions and procedures of ritual ceremonies, interpreting ritual ruless helps the further study of ritual forms and ritual meanings. For single ritual behaviour, interpreting ritual ruless helps integrate ritual forms and define ritual meanings. For set ritual ceremonies, ritual procedure contains the concepts of edge and core, and helps interpret all kinds of changes in ritual ceremonies. Taking drinking ritual as an example, "lishenglisha" (禮盛禮殺) implies that within the same set of ritual ceremony, the ritual details were gradually transformed and became comparatively more elaborate or simplified, instead of being added or omitted according to a fixed standard. Taking scholarly funeral as another example, the ritual started from the initial death, to gradual inauspiciousness (漸凶) of Daqiandian (大遣奠), the inauspiciousness of Yu ceremony (虞禮), the gradual auspiciousness (漸吉) of Zuku (卒哭), to the auspiciousness of the end of the funeral and the return to ordinary life. This gradual progress and transformation from inauspiciousness to auspiciousness shows the transitional nature of a funeral. Third, insufficiencies of ritual ruless. In this thesis, I will discuss insufficiencies of ritual ruless from two aspects: the correspondence or not between methods and objectives (to interpret classic texts and to interpret rituals); and the particularities of ritual ruless themselves. Ritual ruless must have a steady and consistent connections with ritual meanings and ritual forms in order to help interpret classics texts or interpret rituals. From this point of view, there are three situations which would render ritual ruless inefficient in interpreting classic texts: 1. discrepancy between interpretations of ritual meanings. 2. discrepancy between choices (adding or omitting) of ritual forms. 3. ritual ruless not supported and proved by ritual meanings and ritual forms. The most important procedure of applying ritual ruless is to compare the similarities and dissimilarities between them as well as their classification. From this point of view, Lijing shili (禮經釋例) has three obvious deficiencies: 1. the standards used to classify similarities and dissimilarities are not consistent, resulting in the ambiguity of the distinction between different classes of ritual ruless. 2. too much assimilation of ritual forms, resulting in the lack of interpretation of ritual meanings. 3. focusing merely on Yili (儀禮) and neglecting other classic texts, resulting in over-generalisation. Four: classifying ritual ruless. Focusing on the inevitability of rules, in this thesis I have identified two elements which have transformed ritual ruless: firstly, by changing ritual details or introducing another set ritual procedures according to different moral relationships, these ritual ruless thus reinforced the importance of certain values. Secondly, the ritual ruless which were changed according to the nature of different events would integrate this variation or exception into the system of rules. During the process of classifying ritual ruless, I also found that they have multiple dimensions and levels, reflecting that Li (禮) is relative, not definitive.
    經學詮釋的方法豐富而多元,條例正是其中一種。本文以研讀《儀禮》為對象,探討鄭玄《儀禮注》、賈公彥《儀禮疏》、淩廷堪《禮經釋例》等對禮例的界定及應用禮例的情形。透過凡言例句的整理與分析,將提出的問題與研究所得總結如下:第一,禮例的界定與演變。禮例,是具有必然性的禮儀規則,包含禮意、禮文層面。禮例可規範行為與價值觀,放在時間的脈絡下則成為處理新事物的參考,如同慣例一般。比較三《禮》、《儀禮注》、《儀禮疏》、《禮經釋例》後,發現漢朝成立經學後,在「周公制禮」的觀點下,禮例產生如下變化:來源從生活中的禮儀實踐到以《儀禮》一經為據,性質從慣例到比較經文所得之例,內容從兼具禮意與禮文到專主於禮文。此外,根據慣例的觀點,及單一的禮儀行為、整套禮儀進程皆可為例的現象,可知注解者認為《儀禮》是周公致太平之迹,是舊經驗(慣例)的匯聚,因此《儀禮》記載的禮儀也具有規則性質。第二,禮例的作用。在規則具有必然性的觀點下,禮儀皆有其固定的步驟、行禮者、時間、地點等規定,注解者以此為基準,應用互見、比類、推次等方法,解讀經籍文本,表現如下:其一,校勘經文,如字之誤、聲之誤、當為、衍文、脫文等。其二,辨正舊有的經說。其三,界定禮儀種類、辭語、階級禮數等。其四,推論經文所未載的儀節,補足禮文。其五,規則的必然性反映社會與政治制度的存在,因此運用禮例可解釋其他經籍中的禮儀實踐與因革損益,並成為褒貶的根據。運用「禮之大節」為禮儀關鍵與流程的概念,闡明禮例亦有助於研治禮文與禮意。就單一儀節而言,禮例有助於綜合禮文、辨別禮意。就一整套禮儀而言,禮儀進程蘊涵核心與邊緣的概念,有助於解讀各類禮儀變化。如飲酒禮的「禮盛禮殺」係指同一套禮儀中逐漸遞移且相對的繁、簡禮數,而非以一固定的尺度作為標準增減。又如士喪禮由小斂奠到大遣奠的「漸凶」、虞祭與卒哭祭的「反吉」、卒哭祭畢的「漸吉」、喪畢復常的「吉」,吉凶層層遞進變化,呈現喪禮的過渡性質。第三,禮例的不足。本文從方法與目的(解經、解禮)之間能否對應,及禮例方法本身的應用過程,討論禮例的不足。禮例須與禮意、禮文具備固定、一致的關係,方有助於解經或解禮。就此而言,有三種情形將降低禮例解經的效用:其一,禮例詮釋紛紜。其二,禮文捨取紛歧。其三,禮例無法得到禮意、禮文的佐證。應用禮例,最關鍵的步驟在於分類。以此觀之,《禮經釋例》具有三項較為明顯的缺失:首先,界定標準多重不一、敘述無法呈現分類的包含關係,以致類與類的界限不明。其次,過度同化禮文,禮意詮釋產生序列化。其三,專主於《儀禮》一書,忽略其他典籍,導致以偏概全。 第四,禮例的分類。從規則的「必然性」著眼,禮例可分為常例與特例二類:特定禮儀中特定身分的固定作法為常例,因部分因素改變既有作法卻仍被視為規則者,稱為特例。形成特例的因素,可分為倫理關係、事件性質二類。因倫理關係而異的禮例,旨在強化特定價值觀的重要性;因事件性質而異的禮例,則藉此將變異或特殊事件納入規則體制內,以穩定社會秩序。除了秩序訴求外,常例與特例的區別也反映出農業社會的生活背景。分類過程中,亦發現禮例具有多重層次的結構,顯示禮是一種相對值,而非絕對值。
    Relation: 中國學術思想研究輯刊 , 二七編, 第2-4冊, 花木蘭出版社, 新北市
    臺灣大學中國文學研究所學位論文, 2013年, P1 - 458
    Data Type: book/chapter
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學系] 專書/專書篇章

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