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    題名: The Origin and Evolution of the Concept of Mixin (Superstition): A Review of May Fourth Scientific Views
    迷信觀念的起源與演變:五四科學觀的再反省
    作者: 黃克武
    Huang, Max K. W.
    關鍵詞: 迷信 ; 宗教 ; 科學 ; 俗世化 ; 江紹原 ;
    superstition ; religion ; science ; secularization ; Jiang Shao-yuan
    日期: 2015-12
    上傳時間: 2018-04-16 13:33:37 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文從「迷信」觀念內涵之演變到「迷信學」的成立,來考察近代中國思想在西方科學衝擊下所經歷的「俗世化」過程。傳統文獻中,「迷信」的意涵多元且變化不定,除了泛指錯誤的思想、信仰外,傳統迷信觀念意指儒家所謂「非其鬼而祭之,諂也」觀念下,人們去祭拜不該祭拜的對象;或宗教典籍中與本宗教主旨相違背者。此外,「迷信」一詞也有政治意涵,意指與官方祀典不同的信仰和行為。清末,隨著與「科學」相對應的「迷信」觀念由日本傳入,傳統意涵並未消失,而是與新名詞混用。自清末至民初,迷信概念範圍擴大至凡與「科學」、「理性」相矛盾者,均屬「迷信」。這也反映出中國從「經學時代」轉變至「科學時代」,儒家理念與科學思想先後成為「迷信」的主要判準。二十世紀中國思想界對「宗教」、「迷信」、「科學」的看法大致有兩條思路:一是「五四啟蒙論述」,將「宗教」等同於「迷信」,而與「科學」相對;另一為「反五四啟蒙論述」,將「宗教」與「迷信」加以區隔,認為「科學」可掃除「迷信」,而與宗教不相矛盾,然「科學」有其限度,而科學之所以窮,則宗教之所由起。後一思路在 1920、1930 年代「破除迷信運動」的背景下,又受到西方宗教學、人類學的影響,出現了對宗教與迷信的學術研究,而有「宗教學」、「迷信學」之成立。時至今日,「宗教」與「迷信」應如何甄別,人們仍未取得共識。
    This article explores the evolving connotations of the concept of "superstition" up to the establishment of "superstition studies," in an examination of the process of secularization experienced by early modern Chinese thought under the impact of Western science. In traditional texts, the Chinese term mixin (literally "delusional beliefs"), modernly translated as "superstition," carries diverse and variable meanings: aside from referring to the proper or improper content of ideas and beliefs, mixin also has political connotations, broadly referring to beliefs or behaviors differing from the official rituals. On an ideological level, the traditional concept of mixin refers to a category of thought opposed to Confucian concepts such as the cosmology of Heaven, Earth and Man, or the idea that "for a man to sacrifice to a spirit which does not belong to him is flattery." In the late Qing Dynasty, as the idea of "superstition" as opposed to "science" was introduced via Japan, the traditional connotations of mixin did not evaporate but merged with other neologisms. From the late Qing to the early Republic, the parameters of "superstition" were expanded to encompass anything at odds with "science" and "reason." This was also a reflection of China’s shift from the "Classical Age" to the "Age of Science," as Confucian concepts and scientific ideas successively served as the criteria for judging "superstition." As of the present, a consensus has yet to be reached on how to distinguish between "religion" and "superstition." This paper shall seek to clarify the connotations of mixin or "superstition" in different contexts and their connection to the changing times, which may aid in understanding the complex facets of this issue.
    關聯: 東亞觀念史集刊 , 9, 153 - 226
    資料類型: article
    顯示於類別:[東亞觀念史集刊] 期刊論文

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