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    題名: 毒品法庭的批判性考察
    A Critical Analysis of Drug Courts
    作者: 林俊儒
    Lin, Jun Ru
    貢獻者: 謝如媛
    Hsieh, Ju Yuan
    林俊儒
    Lin, Jun Ru
    關鍵詞: 毒品法庭
    問題解決型法庭
    治療式司法
    合作式司法
    刑事法庭
    施用毒品罪
    病患型犯人
    緩起訴
    緩刑
    戒癮治療
    特別預防
    醫療人權
    Drug court
    Problem-solving court
    Therapeutic justice
    Collaborative justice
    Criminal court
    Drug use
    Patient and prisoner
    Deferred prosecution
    Suspended sentence
    Addiction treatment
    Special prevention
    Rights of patients and health care
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2018-04-09 15:55:00 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 毒品法庭自美國發展而逐漸影響世界各地,甚至成為台灣修法倡議,是晚近刑事政策的重要議題。為深入了解毒品法庭,除介紹制度的發展概況與具體內涵外,尚將進一步考掘歷史成因及改革困境,並從制度構造及程序法理的二方面剖析其所引發的爭議。最後,將問題帶回台灣,在透過實證數據理解實務現況的基礎上,將改革情勢與制度問題脈絡化進行比較研究,試圖從刑事政策的觀點提出評價性建議,以作為台灣毒品施用者處遇的策進方向。

    毒品法庭於其權限範圍內,避免對於毒品施用者施加刑罰,而改採治療的態度與方法,促使其參與以治療為主、多元且細緻的處遇。在此同時,也視其表現給予懲罰或獎勵,進行嚴密監督以強化治療義務的要求,加深毒品施用者兼具病人與犯人身分的矛盾。另一方面,程序轉為合作、案主導向、問題解決,則與以往對抗、案件導向、真實發現有別。藉此反思台灣毒品施用者處遇,重要的毋寧是檢討制度的各種爭議,以及其背後所顯示的刑事政策的價值選擇。
    Drug Courts that have risen from development in the United States have had a gradual influence on the rest of the world, and have even been amended into Taiwanese law. This has been an important issue in recent discussions of criminal policy. In order to understand Drug Courts in detail, this article first introduces the background and the contents of the system, and then explores historical causes and reform dilemmas. It then analyzes the issue from the perspective of institutional structure and procedural legal principles. To then focus the issue back on Taiwan, on the basis of understanding the current state of practice through empirical data, a comparative study of the context of reform and institutional issues is conducted. Finally, this article will attempt to put forward a proposal for an evaluation from the perspective of criminal policy as a strategy for dealing with drug addicts in Taiwan.

    Within its jurisdiction, the Drug Court will avoid applying penalties to drug users, and instead adopt attitudes and methods that focus on meticulous and multi-faceted methods that promote participation in treatment. At the same time, they also punish or reward based on performance, carry out strict supervision aimed at strengthening requirements and treatment obligations, and deepen the contradiction between the identity of patients and prisoners among drug users. On the other hand, the transition of procedures to collaboration, case-director orientation, and problem solving is different from confrontation, case-orientation, and truth discovery. In this regard, it is important to reflect on the problems with the system and the choice of values of the criminal policy seen behind them.
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    13. 法務部,毒品施用者戒癮治療概況分析,網址:http://www.rjsd.moj.gov.tw/RJSDWEB/common/WebListFile.ashx?list_id=1484(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    14. 法務部,毒品情勢分析(下),網址:http://antidrug.moj.gov.tw/dl-2350-3b0649b4-0b06-455b-ae6f-7f0ee6ce2f15.html(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    15. 法務部,矯正機關收容施用毒品者及其再犯情形,網址:http://antidrug.moj.gov.tw/dl-2307-173afd1d-2858-4635-a9cc-3da8f9c0d989.html(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    16. 許春金、陳玉書、蔡田木(2013),毒品施用者處遇及除罪化可行性之研究,行政院研究發展考核委員會委託研究。
    17. 黃正雄(2012),替代療法之發展現況,赴美國康乃爾大學法學院研習出國報告,網址:http://report.nat.gov.tw/ReportFront/report_download.jspx?sysId=C10100483&fileNo=001(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    18. 黃名琪(2017/4/20),這樣做 才有助毒品戒癮治療,蘋果日報,網址:https://tw.appledaily.com/headline/daily/20170420/37624303(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    19. 楊士隆、蔡德輝、張伯宏、李宗憲、莊淑婷、黃天鈺(2008),戒治機構內成癮性毒品施用者之管理與處遇模式建構,法務部委託研究。
    20. 楊淳卉(2016/7/5),毒品問題嚴重 立委提修法勒戒前先戒癮治療,自由時報,網址:http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/breakingnews/1752016(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    21. 管婺媛(2018/5/8),提設立毒品法庭 立委:有效打擊毒品犯罪,聯合報,網址:https://udn.com/news/story/6656/2449432(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    22. 盧映潔(2017),書面意見,司法改革國是會議第5分組第4次會議議題5-2-2,網址:https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9NObfZ1vI2WTXk3NnBLeVpwX0U/view(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    23. 蕭白雪(2017/8/14),設毒品法庭…蔡英文:該做 司法院長:再研究,聯合報,網址:https://udn.com/news/story/9939/2640704(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
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    二、英文部分
    (一)專書
    1. Dawn Moore. 2007. Criminal Artefacts: Governing Drugs and Users. Canada: UBC Press.
    2. E. Allan Lind and Tom R. Tyler. 1988. The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Plenum Press.
    3. Greg Berman & Aubrey Fox. 2010. Trial & Error in Criminal Justice Reform: Learning From Failure. New York: Urban Institute Press.
    4. Greg Berman & John Feinblatt. 2005. Good Courts: The Case for Problem- Solving Justice. New York: The New Press.
    5. James L. Nolan. 1997. The Therapeutic State: Justifying Government at Century’s End. New York: New York University Press.
    6. James L. Nolan. 2003. Reinventing justice: The American Drug Court Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    7. James L. Nolan. 2009. Legal Accents, Legal Borrowing: The international Problem-Solving Courts Movement. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    8. Jennifer Murphy. 2015. IIllness or Deviance? Drug Courts, Drug Treatment and the Ambiguity of Addiction. Pennsylvania: Temple University Press.
    9. Jerome Bruner. 2003. Making Stories: Law, Literature, Life. Cambridge & London: Harvard University Press.
    10. Joan Dunayer. 2001. Animal Equality: Language and Liberation. Derwood: Ryce Publishing.
    11. Joann L. Miller & Donald C. Johnson. 2009. Problem solving courts: a measure of Justice. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    12. Kevin White. 2008. Drug Court Justice: Experiences in a Juvenil Drug Court. New York. Peter Lang Publishing.
    13. Lawerence Baum. 2010. Specializing the Courts. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    14. Lee Epstein, William M. Landes, Richard A. Posner. 2013. The Behavior Of Federal Judges: A Theoretical and Empirical Study of Rational Choice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    15. Martin Mayer. 2006. The Judges: a penetrating exploration of American courts and of the new decisions-hard decisions-they must make for a new millennium. New York: Truman Talley Books.
    16. Martin Shapiro. 1986. Courts: A Comparative and Political Analysis. Chicago & London: University Of Chicago Press.
    17. Mitchel P. Roth. 2011. Crime and Punishment: A history of the Criminal Justice System. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
    18. Mitchell B. Mackinem and Paul Higgins. 2008. Drug Court: constructing the moral identity of drug offenders. Illinois: Charles C Thomas Publisher Ltd.
    19. Rebecca Tiger. 2012. Judging Addicts: Drug Courts and Coercion in the Justice System. New York: New York University Press.
    20. Tom Ginsburg, Tamir Moustafa. 2008. Rule by Law: The Politics of Courts in Authoritarian Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    (二)期刊與專書論文
    1. Alex Stevens, Daniele Berto, Wolfgang Heckmann, Viktoria Kerschl, Kerralie Oeuvray, Marianne Ooyen van, Elfriede Steffan & Ambros Uchtenhagen. 2005. Quasi-Compulsory Treatment of Drug Dependent Offenders: An International Literature Review, Substance Use & Misuse 40(3): 269-283.
    2. Allison D. Redich. 2013. The Past, Present, and Future of Mental Health Courts, Pp. 147-161 in Problem Solving Courts : Social Science and Legal Perspectives, edited by Richard L. Wiener & Eve Brank. New York: Springer-Verlag New York.
    3. Brain MacKenzie. 2015. The Judge is the key component: The importance of procedural fairness in drug-treatment courts. Court Review 52: 8-34.
    4. Bruce J. Winick & David B. Wexler. 2006. The Use of Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Law School Clinical Education: Transforming the Criminal Law Clinic. Clinical Law Review 13: 605-634.
    5. Bruce J. Winick. 2002. Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Problem Solving Courts, Fordham Urban Law Journal 30(3): 1055-1103.
    6. Caitlinrose Fisher. 2014. Treating the Disease or Punishing the Criminal?: Effectively Using Drug Court Sanctions To Treat Substance Use Disorder and Decrease Criminal Conduct. Minnesota Law Review 99(2): 747-781.
    7. Cary Heck & Aaron Roussell. 2007. State Administration of Drug Court: Exploring Issues of Authority, Funding and Legitimacy. Criminal Justice Policy Review 18(4): 418-433.
    8. Cary Heck, Aaron Roussell, Scott E. Culhane. 2009. Assessing the Effects of the Drug Court Intervention on Offender Criminal Trajectories: A Research Note, Crime Justice Policy Review 20(2): 236-246.
    9. Christine H. Lindquist, Bryn Ann Herrschaft, Pamela K. Lattimore. 2014. Reentry Courts. Pp.4351-4360 in Encylopidia of Crimology and Criminal Justice, edited by Bruinsma, Gerben, Weisburd, David. New Ork: Springer Verlag New York.
    10. Christopher Slobogin. 1995. Therapeutic Jurisprudence: Five Dilemmas to Ponder. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 1(1): 193-219.
    11. Clare Cappa. 2006. The Social, Political and Theoretical context of drug courts, Monash University Law Review 32(1): 145-176.
    12. Daniel M. Fetsco. 2011. Early Release From Prison in Wyoming: An overview of Parole in Wyoming and Elsewhere and an Examination of Current and Future Trends. Wyoming Law Review 11(1): 99-122.
    13. David B. Rottman. 2000. Does effective therpeutic jurisprudence requrie specialized courts (and do specialized courts imply specialist judge) ?. Court Review 37(2): 22-27.
    14. David B. Wexler. 2005. Therapeutic Jurisprudence in Clinical Legal Education and Legal Skills Training: Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Rehabilitative Role of the Criminal Defense Lawyer. Thomas Law Review 17(3): 743-773.
    15. David B. Wexler. 2014. New Wine in New Bottles: The Need to Sketch a Therapeutic Jurisprudence “Code” of Proposed Criminal Processes and Practice. Arizona Summit Law Review 7: 463-480.
    16. David De Matteo, Sarah Filone and Casey LaDuke. Methodological, Ethical, and Legal Considerations in Drug Court Research. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 29: 806-820.
    17. David S. DeMatteo, Douglas B. Marlowe and David S. Festinger. 2006. Secondary Prevention Services for Clients Who Are Low Risk in Drug Court: A Conceptual Model. Crime and Delinquency 52(1): 114-134.
    18. Deborah J. Chase & Peggy F. Hora. 2000. The Implications of TherapeuticJurisprudence for Judicial Satisfaction. Court Review 37: 12-20.
    19. Eric Lane. 2003. Due Process and Problem Solving Courts. Fordham Urban Law Journal. 3(3): 955-1026.
    20. Faith E. Lutze & Jacqueline Van Wormer. 2014. The Reality of Practicing the Ten Key Components in Adult Drug Court. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 53: 351-383.
    21. Francis A. Allen. 1978. The Decline of the Rehabilitative Ideal in American Criminal Justice. Cleveland State Law Review 27: 147-156.
    22. Gerald Dworkin. 2015. Defining Paternalism. Pp. 17-29 in New Perspectives on Paternalism and Health Care, edited by Thomas Schramme, Springer International Publishing.
    23. Greg Berman & Aubrey Fox. 2010. The Future of Problem-Solving Justice: An International Perspective, University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Relegion, gender & Class 10: 1-24.
    24. Greg Berman & John Feinblatt. 2001. Problem-Solving Courts: A Brief Primer. Law and Policy 23(2): 125-140.
    25. Greg Berman. 2000. What is a Traditional Judge Anyway? Problem Solving in the State Courts. Judicature 84(2): 78-85.
    26. Hepburn, J. R., & Harvey, A. 2007. The effect of the threat of legal sanction on program retention and completion: Is that why they stay in drug court? Crime & Delinquency 53: 255-280.
    27. James Duffy. 2011. Problem-Solving Courts, Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Constitution: If Two is Company, is Three a Crowd?. Melbourne University Law Review 35: 394-425.
    28. James L. Nolan. 2002. Therapeutic adjudication. Society 39(2): 29-38.
    29. James L. Nolan. 2010. Harm Reduction and the American Difference: Drug Treatment and Problem-Solving Courts in Comparative Perspective. Health Care Law and Policy 13: 31-47.
    30. James L. Nolan. 2011. Redefining Criminal Courts: Problem Solving and the Meaning of Justice Pp. 3-31 in Law and Courts Current Perspectives from Infotrac, edited by George Ackerman, Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
    31. Jane M. Spinak. 2003. Why Defenders Feel Defensive: The Defender's Role in Problem-Solving Courts. American Criminal Law Review 40: 1617-1622.
    32. Jeffrey A. Butts. 2011. Introduction: Problem-Solving Courts. Law & Policy 23(2): 121-124.
    33. Jelena Popovic. 2006. Court Process and Therapeutic Jurisprudence: Have We Thrown The Baby Out With The Bathwater. E-Law Journal 1: 60-77.
    34. Jeremy Travis & Joan Petersilia. 2001. Reentry reconsidered: a new look at an old question. Crime Delinquency 47(3): 291-313.
    35. Jeremy Travis. 2000. But they all come back: rethinking prisoner reentry, Sentencing & Corrections: Issues for the 21st Century 7: 1-11.
    36. Joel Gross. 2010. The Effects of Net-Widening on Minority and Indigent Drug Offenders: A Critique of Drug Courts. Maryland Law Journal Race Religion, Gender & Class 10: 161-178.
    37. John A. Bozza. 2007. Benevolent behavior modification: understanding the nature and limitations of Problem-Solving Courts. Widener Law Journal 17(1): 97-143.
    38. John Braithwaite. 2002. Restorative Justice and Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Criminal Law Bulletin 38(2): 244-262.
    39. John Feinblatt & Derek Denckla. 2001. What Does It Mean To Be a Good Lawyer?: Prosecutors, Defenders, and Problem-Solving Courts, Judicature 84: 206-214.
    40. John L. Todd. 1918. The meaning of Rehabilitation. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 80(6): 1-10.
    41. John S. Goldkamp 2000. The Drug Court Response: Issue and Implications for Justice Change. Albany Law Review 63: 923-961.
    42. John S. Goldkamp, Michael D. White, Jennifer B. Robinson. 2001. Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court black box. Journal of Drug Issues 31(1): 27-72.
    43. John Terrence A. Rosenthal. 2002. Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Drug Treatment Courts: Integrating Law and Science. Pp. 145-171 in Drug Court in Theory and in Practice, edited by James L. Nolan, New York: Aldine de gruyter.
    44. Judith S. Kaye. 2004. Delivering Justice Today: A Problem-Solving Approach. Yale Law and Policy Review 22: 125-151.
    45. Judy H. Kluger et al. 2001. The Impact of Problem-Solving on the Lawyer's Role and Ethics, Fordham Urban Law Journal 29(5): 1893-1924.
    46. Kerwin Kaye. 2015. Rehabilitating the ‘drugs lifestyle’: Criminal justice, social control, and the cultivation of agency. Ethnography 14(2): 207-232.
    47. Mae C. Quinn. 2007. An RSVP to Professor Wexler's Warm Therapeutic Jurisprudence Invitation to the Criminal Defense Bar: Unable to Join You, Already (Somewhat Similarly) Engaged. Boston College Law Review 48(3): 539-595.
    48. Mae Quinn. 2001. Whose Team Am I on Anyway: Musings of a Public Defender about Drug Treatment Court Practice. New York University Journal of Law and Social Change 26: 35-75.
    49. Malcolm M. Feeley & Joathan Simon. 1992. The New Penology: Notes on the Emerging Strategy of Corrections and Its Implication. Criminology 30(4): 449-474.
    50. Michael C. Dorf & Charles F. Sabel. 2001. Drug Treatment courts and Emergent Experimentalist Government. Vanderbilt Law Review 53(3): 831-883.
    51. Michael C. Dorf. 2006. Problem-Solving Courts and the Judicial accountability deficit. Pp. 309-328 in Public Accountability, Designs, Dilemmas and Experiences, edited by Michael W. Dowdle, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    52. Michael D Clark. 2003. A Change-Focused Approach for Judges. Pp. 137-147 in Judging in a Therapeutic Key: Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Courts, edited by Bruce J Winick and David B Wexler. Carolina Academic Press.
    53. Michael Tonry & Mary Lynch. 1996. Intermediate Sanctions. Crime & Just 20: 99-144.
    54. Micheal Foucault. 1997. A Birth of Biopolitics, Pp. 73-79 in Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth (The Essential Works of Micheal Foucault, 1954-1984), edited by Paul Rainbow. New York: The New Press.
    55. Morris B. Hoffman. 2000. The Drug Court Scandal. North Carolina Law Review 78(5): 1439-1531.
    56. Morris B. Hoffman. 2001. Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Neo-Rehabilitationism, and Judicial Collectivism: The Least Dangerous Branch Becomes Most Dangerous. Fordham Urban Law Journal 29(5): 2063-2098.
    57. Morris B. Hoffman. 2011. Problem-Solving Courts and the Psycholegal Error. University of Pennsylvania Law Review Online 160(1) 129-139.
    58. Nicky Padfield. 2011. Judicial Rehabilitation? A view from England. European Journal of Probation 3(1): 36-49.
    59. O'Hear, Michael M. 2009. Rethinking Drug Courts: Restorative Justice as a Response to Racial Injustice. Stanford Law & Policy Review 20: 463-500.
    60. Ole Jacob Madsen. 2014. Therapeutic Culture, Pp.1965-1968 in Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology, edited by Thomas Teo. New York: Springer-Verlag New York.
    61. Pat O’Malley. 1996. Risk and Responsibility, Pp. 189-207 in Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neo-Liberalism and Rationalities of Government, edited by Andrew Barry, Thomas Osborne and Nickolas Rose. Abingdon: Routledge.
    62. Peggy Fulton Hora, William G. Schma, JohnT.A. Rosenthal. 1999. Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Drug Treatment Court Movement: Revolutionizing the Criminal Justice System’s Response to Drug Abuse and Crime in America. Notre Dame Law Review 74(2): 439-538.
    63. Peggy Fulton Hora. 2011. Courting New Solutions Using Problem-Solving Justice: Key Components, Guiding Principles, Strategies, Responses, Models, Approaches, Blueprints and Tool Kits. Chapman Journal of Criminal Justice 2(1): 7-52.
    64. Peter Raynor & Gwen Robinson. 2009. Why Help Offenders Arguments for Rehabilitation as a Penal Strategy. European Journal of Probation 1(1): 3-20.
    65. John Petrila, Norman G. Poythress, Annette McGaha and Roger A. Boothroyd. 2003. The Broward Mental Health Court: process, outcomes, and service utilization. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 26(1): 55-71.
    66. Philip Bean. 2002. Drug Courts, the Judge, and the Rehabilitative Ideal. Pp.235-254 in Drug Court in Theory and in Practice, edited by James L. Nolan. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    67. Rekha Mirchandani. 2008. Beyond Therapy: Problem-Solving Courts and the Deliberative Democratic State. Law & Social Inquiry 33(4): 853-893.
    68. Richard C. Boldt. 2009. A Circumspect Look at Problem-Solving Courts. Pp. 13-32 in Problem-Solving Courts: Justice for the Twenty-First Century, edited by Paul C. Higgins & Mitchell B. Mackinem. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger.
    69. Richard C. Boldt. 2014. Problem-Solving Courts and Pragmatism, Maryland Law Review 73: 1120-1172.
    70. Robert G. Madden & Raymie H. Wayne. 2015. Constructing A Normative Framework For Therapeutic Jurisprudence Using Social Work Principles As A Model. Touro Law Review 18(3): 487-502.
    71. Robert V. Wolf. 2008. Breaking with tradition: Introducing problem solving in conventional courts. International Law, Computer & Technology 21(1): 77-93.
    72. Roblin Mackenzie. 2008. Feeling Good: the Ethopolitics of Pleasure, Psychoactive Substance Use and Public Health and Criminal Justice System Governance: Therapeutic Jurisprudence and the Drug Courts in the United States of America. Social and Legal Studies 17(4): 513-533.
    73. Samantha Jeffries. 2005. How Justice ‘Get Done’: Politics, Mangerialism, Consumerism, and Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Current Issue in Criminal Justice 17: 254-268.
    74. Scott Vrecko. 2009. Therapeutic Justice in Drug Court: Crime, Punishment and Societies of Control. Science as Culture 18(2): 217-232.
    75. Scott W. Henggeler. 2007. Juvenile drug courts: emerging outcomes and key research issues. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 20(3): 242-246.
    76. Shane Butler. 2013. The symbolic politics of the Dublin drug court: The complexities of policy transfer. Drug: education, prevention and policy 20(1): 5-14.
    77. Shannon Portillo, Danielle S. Rudes & Faye S. Taxman. 2016. The Transportability of Contingency Management in Problem-solving Courts. Justice Quarterly 33(22): 267-290.
    78. Shannon Portillo, Danielle S. Rudes, Jill Viglione and Mattew Nelson. 2013. Front-stage stars and backstage producers: The role of judges in problem-solving courts. Victims & offenders 8(1): 1-22.
    79. Susan Daicoff. 2006. Law as a Healing Profession: The "Comprehensive Law Movement", Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal. 6: 1-62.
    80. Susan H. Brown, Sara G. Gilman, Ellen G. Goodman, Robbie Adler-Tapia, Steven Freg. 2015. Integrated Trauma Treatment in Drug Court: Combining EMDR Therapy and Seeking Safety. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research vol.9(3): 123-136.
    81. Tamar M. Meekins. 2006. “Specialized Justice”: The Over-Emergence of Specialty Courts and the Threat of a New Criminal Defense Paradigm. Suffolk University Law Review 40: 1-55.
    82. Tamar M. Meekins. 2007. Risky Business- Criminal Specialty Courts and the Ethical Obligation of Zealous Criminal Defender. Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law 12(1): 75-126.
    83. Timothy Casey. 2004. When Good Intentions Are Not Enough: Problem-Solving Courts and the Impending Crisis of Legitimacy. SMU Law Review 57: 1459-1520.
    84. Toby Seddon. 2007. Coerced drug treatment in the criminal justice system: conceptual, ethical and criminological issues, Criminology and Criminal Justice 7(3): 269-286.
    85. Vanja Bajović. 2010. Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Problem-Solving Courts, Pregledni Članci 15(8): 257-269.

    (三)碩博士論文
    1. Leah C. Georges. 2014. Procedural Due Process in Modern Problem-Solving Courts: An Application of the Asymmetric Immune Knowledge Hypothesis, PhD diss, University of Nebraska.

    (四)其他(官方與民間報告、未出版文獻、線上影音)
    1. Adult Drug Court Standards Vol. II. 2015. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K3tTMY3qkkU (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    2. Arielle W. Tolman. 2010. The Rebirth of the Rehabilitative: The Emergence of Problem-Solving Courts and Therapeutic Jurisprudence. Available at http://wesscholar.wesleyan.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1408&context=etd_hon_theses (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    3. Aubrey Fox & Robert V. Wolf. 2004. The Future of Drug Courts: How States are Mainstreaming the Drug Court Model. Available at https://www.courtinnovation.org/sites/default/files/futureofdrugcourts.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    4. Betty Gurnell, Meg Holmberg and Susan Yeres. 2014. Starting a Juvenile Drug Court: A Planning Guide. Available at http://www.ncjfcj.org/sites/default/files/NCJFCJ_JDC_PlanningGuide_Final.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    5. Bureau of Justice Assistance. 2000. Emerging Judical Strategies for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Caseload: Mental Health Courts in Fort Lauderdale. Seattle, San Bernardino, and Anchorage. Available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/182504.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    6. Caroline S. Cooper. 2001. Juvenile Drug Court Program, U.S. Department of Justice. Available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    7. Center for Court innovation. 2006. Problem-Solving Justice: A Law School Course. Available at http://www.courtinnovation.org/sites/default/files/psjlawschoolcourse.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    8. Cetre for justice innovation. 2015. Problem-solving courts: An evidence review. Available at http://justiceinnovation.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Problem-solving-courts-An-evidence-review.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    9. Christopher J. Mumola. 1999. Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Available at http://csdp.org/research/satsfp97.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    10. Douglas B. Marlowe, Carolyn D. Hardin, Carson L. Fox (NADCP). 2016. Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Courts in United States. Available at http://www.nadcp.org/sites/default/files/2014/Painting%20the%20Current%20Picture%202016.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    11. Douglas B. Marlowe. 2010. Research Update on Juvenile Drug Treatment Courts. Available at https://www.nadcp.org/sites/default/files/nadcp/Research%20Update%20on%20Juvenile%20Drug%20Treatment%20Courts%20-%20NADCP_1.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    12. Drug Court Standards - NADCP Chief of Science, Law and Policy Dr. Doug Marlowe. 2013. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJi1udGWxrM (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    13. Gallup. 2016. Confidence in Institutions. Available at http://www.gallup.com/poll/1597/confidence-institutions.aspx (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    14. Gerald Dworkin. 2017. Paternalism. Available at https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/paternalism/ (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    15. Jamey Hueston. 2011. Sanctions and Incentives: A Review of What Works and Why. Available at http://www.wellnesscourts.org/files/Sanctions%20%20Incentives%20JHueston%20.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018)
    16. Jeffrey N. Kushner, Roger H. Peters. 2014. A Technical Assistance Guide For Drug Court Judges on Drug Court Treatment Services, BJA Drug Court Technical Assistance Project. Available at https://www.american.edu/spa/jpo/initiatives/drug-court/upload/A-Technical-Assistance-Guide-for-Drug-Court-Judges-on-Drug-Court-Treatment-Services.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    17. John Ashcroft, Deborah J. Daniels, Domingo S. Herraiz, NADCP. 1997. Defining Drug Courts: The Key Components. Available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/205621.pdf (last visited Jan. 24, 2017).
    18. John S. Goldkamp & Doris Weiland. 1993. Assessing the Impact of Dade County’s Felony Drug Court. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/145302.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018)
    19. Patrick A. Langan & David J. Levin (BJS Statisticians) 2002. Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Available at https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rpr94.pdf(last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    20. National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyer. 2009. America’s Problem Solving Courts: The Criminal Costs of Treatment and the Case for Reform. Available at https://www.nacdl.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=20217 (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    21. National Association of Drug Court Professionals & National Drug Court Institute. 2009. List of Incentives and Sanctions. Available at http://ndcrc.org/sites/default/files/sanctions_and_incentives_ndci_annotated_document.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    22. National Association of Drug Court Professionals. 2013. Adult Drug Court Best Practice Standards: Volume I. Available at http://www.allrise.org/sites/default/files/nadcp/AdultDrugCourtBestPracticeStandards.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    23. National Association of Drug Court Professionals. 2015. Adult Drug Court Best Practice Standards: Volume II. Available at http://www.allrise.org/sites/default/files/nadcp/AdultDrugCourtBestPracticeStandards.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    24. National Drug Court Institute. 2002. Ethical Considerations for Judges and Attorneys in Drug Courts. Available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/197080.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    25. National Drug Court Institute. 2003. Critical Issues for Defense Attorneys in Drug Courts. Available at https://www.ndci.org/wp-content/uploads/Mono4.CriticalIssues.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    26. National Legal Aid & Defender Association. 2002. Ten Tenets of Fair and Effective Problem-Solving Courts. Available at http://jpo.wrlc.org/bitstream/handle/11204/742/Ten%20Tenets%20of%20Fair%20and%20Effective%20Problem%20Solving%20Courts.pdf?sequence=3 (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    27. Office of Justice Programs. 1999. Reentry Courts: Managing the Transition from Prison to Community. Available at https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojp/sl000389.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    28. Paula M. Ditton. 1999. Mental Health and Treatment of Inmates and Probationers. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Available at https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/media/publications/bojs_mental_health_and_treatment_of_inmates_and_probationers_1999.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    29. Robert Wolf. 2005. California’s Collaborative Justice Courts: Building A Problem-Solving Judiciary. Available at http://www.courts.ca.gov/documents/California_Story.pdf(last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    30. Sarra L. Hedden, Joel Kennet, Rachel Lipari, Grace Medley, Peter Tice. 2014. Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Available at https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-FRR1-2014/NSDUH-FRR1-2014.htm (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    31. Sirotich & Frank. 2006. Reconfiguring Crime Control and Criminal Justice: Governmentality and Problem-Solving Courts. University of New Brunswick Law Journal. Available at https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Reconfiguring+crime+control+and+criminal+justice%3a+governmentality+and...-a0163435967 (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    32. Susan Yeres, Betty Gurnell and Meg Holmberg. 2005. Making Sense of Incentives and Sanctions in working with the Substance Abuse Offender. Available at http://www.ncjfcj.org/sites/default/files/incentivesandsanctions_july_2009%282%29_0.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 20188).
    33. The Sentencing Project. 2017. Trend in U.S. Correction. Available at http://sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Trends-in-US-Corrections.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    34. Thomas D. Barton. 2002. Preventive Law: A Methodology for Preventing Problems. Available at http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/2011_build/dispute_resolution/bartonprevent.authcheckdam.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    35. United Nations Office on Drug and Crime. 2003. Investing in drug abuse treatment: A discussion paper for policy maker. Available at https://www.unodc.org/docs/treatment/Investing_E.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).
    36. USA Today. 2006. USA Today/HBO Drug Addiction Poll. Available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/polls/2006-07-19-addiction-poll.htm (last visitied Mar. 18, 2018).
    37. William G. Meyer. 2007. Constitution and Other Legal Issues in Drug Court. Available at http://legisweb.state.wy.us/2007/interim/drugcourt/legalissues.pdf (last visited Mar. 18, 2018).

    三、日文部分
    (一)專著
    1. 丸山泰弘(2015),刑事司法における薬物依存治療プログラムの意義:「回復」をめぐる権利と義務,東京:日本評論社。

    (二)期刊與專書論文
    1. 甘利航司(2012),非拘禁的措置と社会内処遇の課題と展望。刑事立法研究会編,非拘禁的措置と社会内処遇の課題と展望,頁36-72,東京:現代人文社。
    2. 謝如媛(2007),社会内処遇をめぐる台湾の現状ー2005年の法改正を中心に,刑事立法研究会編,更生保護制度改革のゆくえー犯罪をした人の社会復帰のために,頁328-349,東京:現代人文社。
    3. 謝如媛(2009),薬物乱用に関する台湾の法規範と刑事政策,矯正講座,29号,頁111-143。
    4. 森村たまき(2007),ドラッグ・コートの10の構成要素,石塚伸一編,日本版ドラッグ・コート―処罰から治療へ,頁89-98,東京:日本評論社。
    5. 森村たまき(2007),ドラッグ・コート前史―アメリカにおける薬物政策の変遷,石塚伸一編,日本版ドラッグ・コート―処罰から治療へ,頁72-76,東京:日本評論社。
    6. 西村直之(2013),薬物依存とは何か?~回復支援の限界を超えるために~,石塚伸一編,薬物政策への新たなる挑戦──日本版ドラッグ・コートを越えて,頁205-215,東京:日本評論社。
    7. 尾田真言(2007),ドラッグ・コート制度,石塚伸一編,日本版ドラッグ・コート―処罰から治療へ,頁80-89,東京:日本評論社。

    (三)其他
    1. 叁議院議事錄情報(2011/11/24),第179回国会法務委員会第4回,http://www.sangiin.go.jp/japanese/kaigijoho/shitsugi/179/s065_0003.html(最後瀏覽日:2018/3/18)。
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    法律學系
    103651021
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103651021
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[法律學系] 學位論文

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