English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  全文筆數/總筆數 : 82429/111618 (74%)
造訪人次 : 21429681      線上人數 : 703
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
搜尋範圍 查詢小技巧:
  • 您可在西文檢索詞彙前後加上"雙引號",以獲取較精準的檢索結果
  • 若欲以作者姓名搜尋,建議至進階搜尋限定作者欄位,可獲得較完整資料
  • 進階搜尋
    請使用永久網址來引用或連結此文件: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/115756


    題名: 多重市場競爭與價格離散之關聯 : 以美國境內航空市場為例
    Does multimarket contact matter for price dispersion in the airline industry?
    作者: 劉亭彣
    Liou, Ting-Wun
    貢獻者: 江品慧
    Chiang, Piin-Hueih
    劉亭彣
    Liou, Ting-Wun
    關鍵詞: 美國境內航空市場
    多重市場接觸
    相互容忍說
    價格離散
    吉尼係數
    U.S. airline industry
    Multimarket contact
    Mutual forbearance
    Price dispersion
    Gini coefficient
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2018-02-02 11:37:04 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文以美國境內航空市場為例,探討多重市場接觸與價格離散的關聯,並研究大型航空公司併購案前後多重市場接觸對航空公司競爭策略的影響。本研究發現:(一) 相互容忍說於併購案發生前後皆成立。(二) 相較於考量擴大市場的市佔率,航空公司更應該關注與競爭者間的競爭關係。(三) 併購案發生前後,航空公司的訂價行為都深受競爭對手的競爭策略影響。(四) 併購案發生前,因競爭者多,市場上航空公司平均市佔率的大小是航空公司可採取競爭手段重要因素之一。在最大的1000 個市場中,雖然每家航空公司的市場力量不大,航空公司仍可採取價格競爭,然若是對手間聯合懲罰,則航空公司不敢採取激進手段,且多重市場接觸越多,價格離散程度越大。而在次要競爭的市場中,則因航空公司的平均市占率是最大的1000 個市場的兩倍,因此航空公司並未有明顯競爭行為。但若考量競爭對手間的碰面次數,則多重市場接觸與不同分位價格關係為正,且多重市場接觸越多,價格離散程度越低。併購案發生後,因航空公司間彼此箝制力量大,與競爭對手間的碰面次數越多,越傾向隱性勾結,且高價位的價格上升較低價位價格多,使價格離散程度越大。
    In this paper, we discuss whether multimarket contact matters for price dispersion in the U.S. airline industry, and compare the influence of multimarket
    contact on airlines’ competition strategies before and after airline mergers and acquisitions. We find that: (a) Before and after the mergers, mutual forbearance exists. (b) In contrast to an airline‘s market share, the relationship between airlines and itself plays a more important role in its pricing strategy.(c) Before and
    after the mergers, airline companies’pricing strategies are significantly affected by their competitors’strategies. (d) Before the mergers, because of the intense competition, it is the size of the competitors‘ market share that the company decide whether to take aggressive strategies. In the top 1000 competitive markets,airline companies will take aggressive actions to get more passengers for the punishment from its competitor is an incredible threat, however, if competitors collude together, airline companies will hardly dare to cut price. And the
    effect of an increase in multimarket contact on price dispersion is positive and significant. In the second competitive markets, since the average market share
    is twice bigger than in the top 1000 markets, airlines prefer not to participate in cut-throat competition. However, if competitors collude, then airline companies
    will cooperate together, and the effect of an increase in multimarket contact on price dispersion is negative and significant. After the mergers, increase in contacts
    with competitors would facilitate mutual forbearance and increase price dispersion and higher-percentile prices will increase more than lower-percentile prices.
    參考文獻: Baum, Joel AC and Helaine J Korn. 1996. “Competitive dynamics of interfirm rivalry.” Academy of Management journal 39 (2):255–291.

    Bernheim, B. Douglas and Michael D. Whinston. 1990. “Multimarket Contact and Collusive Behavior.” RAND Journal of Economics 21 (1):1–26.

    Berry, Steven and Panle Jia. 2010. “Tracing the Woes: An Empirical Analysis of the Airline Industry.” American Economic Journal: Microeconomics 2 (3):1–43.

    Berry, Steven, James Levinsohn, and Ariel Pakes. 1995. “Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium.” Econometrica 63 (4):841–890.

    Berry, Steven T. 1992. “Estimation of a Model of Entry in the Airline Industry.” Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society :889–917.

    Borenstein, Severin. 1985. “Price Discrimination in Free-Entry Markets.” RAND Journal of Economics 16 (3):380–397.

    Borenstein, Severin and Nancy L Rose. 1994. “Competition and Price Dispersion in the U.S. Airline Industry.”Journal of Political Economy 102 (4):653–683.

    Button, Kenneth and Somik Lall. 1999. “The economics of being an airport hub city.” Research in Transportation Economics 5 (Supplement C):75 – 105.

    Chicu, Mark and Nicolas L. Ziebarth. 2013. “Multi-market contact and competition:evidence from the Depression-era portland cement industry.” International Journal of Industrial Organization 31 (5):603–611.

    Chuang, You-Ta, Kristina B Dahlin, Kelly Thomson, Yung-Cheng Lai, and Chun-Chi Yang. 2015. “Multimarket contact, strategic alliances, and firm performance.”Journal of Management :0149206315615399.

    Ciliberto, Federico and Carola Schenone. 2012. “Bankruptcy and product-market competition: Evidence from the airline industry.” International Journal of Industrial Organization 30 (6):564 – 577.

    Ciliberto, Federico and Jonathan W. Williams. 2014. “Does multimarket contact facilitate tacit collusion? Inference on conduct parameters in the airline industry.” The RAND Journal of Economics 45 (4):764–791.

    Dai, Mian, Qihong Liu, and Konstantinos Serfes. 2014. “Is the effect of competition on price dispersion nonmonotonic? evidence from the us airline industry.”
    Review of Economics and Statistics 96 (1):161–170.

    Dana, James D. and Jr. 1998. “Advance-Purchase Discounts and Price Discrimination in Competitive Markets.” Journal of Political Economy 106 (2):395–422.

    Edwards, Corwin D. 1955. “Conglomerate Bigness as a Source of Power.” In Business Concentration and Price Policy, NBER Chapters. National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, 331–359.

    Evans, William N and Ioannis N Kessides. 1993. “Localized Market Power in the U.S. Airline Industry.” The Review of Economics and Statistics 75 (1):66–75.

    Evans, William N. and Ioannis N. Kessides. 1994. “Living by the Golden Rule :Multimarket Contact in the U. S. Airline Industry.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 109 (2):341–366.

    Gayle, Philip G. 2013. “On the Efficiency of Codeshare Contracts between Airlines:Is Double Marginalization Eliminated?” American Economic Journal:Microeconomics 5 (4):244–73.

    Gerard, Kristopher S. and Adam Hale Shapiro. 2009. “Does Competition Reduce Price Dispersion? New Evidence from the Airline Industry.” Journal of Political Economy 117 (1):1–37.

    Gimeno, Javier and Carolyn Y. Woo. 1996.“Hypercompetition in a Multimarket Environment: The Role of Strategic Similarity and Multimarket Contact in Competitive De-Escalation.” Organization Science 7 (3):322–341.

    Goolsbee, Austan and Chad Syverson. 2008. “How Do Incumbents Respond to the Threat of Entry? Evidence from the Major Airlines.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123 (4):1611–1633.

    Hausman, Jerry A. 1978. “Specification tests in econometrics.” Econometrica:Journal of the Econometric Society :1251–1271.

    Ito, Harumi and Darin Lee. 2007. “Domestic Code Sharing, Alliances, and Airfares in the U.S. Airline Industry.” Journal of Law and Economics 50:355–380.

    Kasman, Saadet and Adnan Kasman. 2016. “Multimarket contact, market power and financial stability in the Turkish banking industry.” Empirical Economics
    50 (2):361–382.

    Mazzeo, Michael. 2003. “Competition and Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry.” Review of Industrial Organization 22 (4):275–296.

    Nicolae, Mariana, Mazhar Arıkan, Vinayak Deshpande, and Mark Ferguson.2016. “Do bags fly free? An empirical analysis of the operational implications of airline baggage fees.” Management Science .

    Prince, Jeffrey T and Daniel H Simon. 2009. “Multimarket contact and service quality: Evidence from on-time performance in the US airline industry.”Academy of Management Journal 52 (2):336–354.

    Yuen, Andrew Chi Lok, Zheng Lei, Clement Kong Wing Chow, and Michael Ka Yiu Fung. 2017. “Could market power explain hub premiums?” Journal of Air Transport Management 64 (Part A):55 – 59. Selected papers from the
    19th ATRS World Conference, Singapore, 2015.

    Zou, Li, Chunyan Yu, and Martin Dresner. 2012. “Multimarket contact, alliance membership, and prices in international airline markets.” Transportation Research
    Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 48 (2):555–565.
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    經濟學系
    104258015
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1042580151
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[經濟學系] 學位論文

    文件中的檔案:

    檔案 大小格式瀏覽次數
    015101.pdf716KbAdobe PDF0檢視/開啟


    在政大典藏中所有的資料項目都受到原著作權保護.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - 回饋