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    Title: 內隱自尊與外顯自尊之落差對憂鬱的影響
    The Effects of Discrepancies Between Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem on Depression
    Authors: 王馥亭
    Wang, Fu Ting
    Contributors: 許文耀
    Hsu, Wen Yau
    Wang, Fu Ting
    Keywords: 內隱自尊
    Implicit self-esteem
    Discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem
    Date: 2018
    Issue Date: 2018-02-02 11:21:45 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究關心多探討內隱自尊之下,內隱自尊與外顯自尊之落差對憂鬱的影響。近代憂鬱心理病理研究,大多支持憂鬱症患者具有低外顯自尊,然而自尊是多重面向的構念,根據認知雙元模式,自尊依據能否透過意識覺察分為內隱與外顯兩層面,本研究期望以過去自尊與憂鬱相關理論及實徵研究為基礎,進一步探討除了外顯自尊,內隱與外顯自尊之落差對憂鬱的影響,由此更全面地瞭解自尊在憂鬱心理病理的作用。由於內隱自尊是不受意識控制的潛在歷程,受到外在壓力事件促發而彰顯,因此本研究會納入壓力作為探討內外自尊落差影響憂鬱之考量,另,探索內外自尊落差對憂鬱的預測性也是本研究的主要目的。故本研究欲了解在壓力事件下是否彰顯自尊落差對憂鬱脆弱性的預測效果,並控制外顯自尊與壓力的作用以得知自尊落差對憂鬱是否具有獨特貢獻性。研究對象採用120位的大學生,測量憂鬱、外顯自尊程度和進行內隱自尊測量,並追蹤一個月所經歷生活壓力事件程度及憂鬱程度。研究結果有幾項主要的發現:(1)外顯自尊與壓力的交互作用對憂鬱有顯著預測性;(2)控制外顯自尊與壓力的交互作用後,內隱與外顯自尊之落差和壓力的交互作用對憂鬱具有預測性。研究貢獻在於支持內隱與外顯自尊的落差在壓力事件下對憂鬱具有增益效度。
    The main purpose of the study was to examine the predictive effect of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with stressful life events on depression. Explicit self-esteem has claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Recently, it has suggested that implicit self-esteem, and the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem, could also relate to depression. There were several theories about the effects of explicit and implicit self-esteem on depression. First, the dysfunctional self-attitudes underlying depression operate in an implicit fashion, and the implicit negative cognitive styles increase one’s risk for depression following stressful life events. Second, the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem reflects on the nature of self-discrepancy and self-esteem instability, which is relate to cognitive vulnerability to depression. In addition, the effect of implicit self-esteem on depression was still indistinct. Accordingly, we hope to consider the effect of implicit self-esteem and more clearly present the theoretical importance of the effect of the relationship between implicit and explicit self-esteem on depression. Participants were 120 college students. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test, whereas explicit self-esteem was measured using a self-reporting questionnaire: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The Beck Depression Inventory were completed to measure symptoms of depression, and the Life Events Scale for College Students was to measure the stress they have undergone four weeks follow-up. The results indicated that explicit self-esteem interacted with life stress to predict prospective changes in depression. Furthermore, after controlling the effect of explicit self-esteem and life stress, and the interaction of explicit self-esteem with life stress , the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem interacted with life stress to remain a unique predictor of depression over the four-week prospective interval. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depression.
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