English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 11 |  Items with full text/Total items : 88613/118155 (75%)
Visitors : 23494233      Online Users : 131
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/115744
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/115744


    Title: 內隱自尊與外顯自尊之落差對憂鬱的影響
    The Effects of Discrepancies Between Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem on Depression
    Authors: 王馥亭
    Wang, Fu Ting
    Contributors: 許文耀
    Hsu, Wen Yau
    王馥亭
    Wang, Fu Ting
    Keywords: 內隱自尊
    內隱自尊與外顯的落差
    憂鬱
    Implicit self-esteem
    Discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem
    Depression
    Date: 2018
    Issue Date: 2018-02-02 11:21:45 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究關心多探討內隱自尊之下,內隱自尊與外顯自尊之落差對憂鬱的影響。近代憂鬱心理病理研究,大多支持憂鬱症患者具有低外顯自尊,然而自尊是多重面向的構念,根據認知雙元模式,自尊依據能否透過意識覺察分為內隱與外顯兩層面,本研究期望以過去自尊與憂鬱相關理論及實徵研究為基礎,進一步探討除了外顯自尊,內隱與外顯自尊之落差對憂鬱的影響,由此更全面地瞭解自尊在憂鬱心理病理的作用。由於內隱自尊是不受意識控制的潛在歷程,受到外在壓力事件促發而彰顯,因此本研究會納入壓力作為探討內外自尊落差影響憂鬱之考量,另,探索內外自尊落差對憂鬱的預測性也是本研究的主要目的。故本研究欲了解在壓力事件下是否彰顯自尊落差對憂鬱脆弱性的預測效果,並控制外顯自尊與壓力的作用以得知自尊落差對憂鬱是否具有獨特貢獻性。研究對象採用120位的大學生,測量憂鬱、外顯自尊程度和進行內隱自尊測量,並追蹤一個月所經歷生活壓力事件程度及憂鬱程度。研究結果有幾項主要的發現:(1)外顯自尊與壓力的交互作用對憂鬱有顯著預測性;(2)控制外顯自尊與壓力的交互作用後,內隱與外顯自尊之落差和壓力的交互作用對憂鬱具有預測性。研究貢獻在於支持內隱與外顯自尊的落差在壓力事件下對憂鬱具有增益效度。
    The main purpose of the study was to examine the predictive effect of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with stressful life events on depression. Explicit self-esteem has claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Recently, it has suggested that implicit self-esteem, and the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem, could also relate to depression. There were several theories about the effects of explicit and implicit self-esteem on depression. First, the dysfunctional self-attitudes underlying depression operate in an implicit fashion, and the implicit negative cognitive styles increase one’s risk for depression following stressful life events. Second, the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem reflects on the nature of self-discrepancy and self-esteem instability, which is relate to cognitive vulnerability to depression. In addition, the effect of implicit self-esteem on depression was still indistinct. Accordingly, we hope to consider the effect of implicit self-esteem and more clearly present the theoretical importance of the effect of the relationship between implicit and explicit self-esteem on depression. Participants were 120 college students. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using the Implicit Association Test, whereas explicit self-esteem was measured using a self-reporting questionnaire: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The Beck Depression Inventory were completed to measure symptoms of depression, and the Life Events Scale for College Students was to measure the stress they have undergone four weeks follow-up. The results indicated that explicit self-esteem interacted with life stress to predict prospective changes in depression. Furthermore, after controlling the effect of explicit self-esteem and life stress, and the interaction of explicit self-esteem with life stress , the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem interacted with life stress to remain a unique predictor of depression over the four-week prospective interval. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depression.
    Reference: 余思賢、孫蒨如(2004)。「華人的內隱自尊」。本土心理學研究,22期,329-357。
    林淑惠(2012)。大學生生活事件量表發展之研究。國立新竹教育大學教育心理與諮商學系在職進修專班碩士學位論文。
    張玉萍(2008)。外顯內隱自尊的落差現象與自我設限。國立政治大學心理學研究所碩士論文。
    張本聖、洪志美(譯)(2011)。心理衡鑑大全第二版(原作者:G. Groth-Marnat)。
    陳心怡(2000)。貝克憂鬱量表第二版(BDI-II)中文版。台北:中國行為科學社。
    陳學志、李威震、周泰安、卓淑玲(2002)。「以內隱聯結測驗(IAT)測量國人自尊的可行性研究」。測驗年刊,49卷,2期,217-234。
    陳毓文 ( 2008 )。國內接受機構安置少年憂鬱情緒之探究: 問題陳顯與解釋因素中華心理衛生學刊,第二十一卷(2008),第一期,75-101頁。
    蔡芬芳(1997)。自尊對自利歸因的影響:自我概念內容與結構的交互作用。國立台灣大學心理學研究所,碩士論文。
    盧孟良、車先蕙、張尚文、沈武典(2002)。中文版貝克憂鬱量表第二版之信度和效度。台灣精神醫學,16,301-310。
    Abelson, R. P. (1983). Whatever became of consistency theory? Personality and
    Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 37-54.
    Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A
    theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.
    Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Murray, L. A., Whitehouse, W. G., & Hogan, M. E.
    (1997). Self-referent information processing in individuals at high and low
    cognitive risk for depression. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 539-568.
    Allport, G. W. (1955). Becoming. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of
    mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
    Banse, R., Seise, J., & Zerbes, N. (2001). Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality:
    Reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT. Zeitschrift für experimentelle
    Psychologie, 48(2), 145-160.
    Barber, J. P., & DeRubeis, R. J. (1989). On second thought: Where the action is in
    cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 13, 441–457.
    Bargh, J. A. (1994). The four horsemen of automaticity: awareness, intention,
    efficiency, and control in social cognition. In R. S. Wyer, Jr., & T. K. Srull (Eds.),
    Handbook of social cognition (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial functioning and depression:
    Distinguishing among antecedents, concomitants, and consequences.
    Psychological Bulletin, 104, 97–126.
    Baumeister, R. F., Tice, D. M., & Hutton, D. G. (1989). Self-presentation motivations
    and personality differences in self-esteem. Journal of Personality, 57, 547–579.
    Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1996). Relation of threatened egotism to
    violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological
    Review, 103(1), 5-33.
    Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New
    York: Hoeber.
    Beck, A. T. (1987). Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive
    Psychotherapy, 1, 5-38.
    Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
    Beck, A. T., & Rush, A. J. (1978). Cognitive approaches to depression and suicide. In
    G. Serban (Ed.), Cognitive defects in the development of mental illness (pp.
    235-257). New York: Brunner Mazel.
    Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of
    depression (pp. 291-331). New York: Guilford Press.
    Beevers, C. G. (2005). Cognitive vulnerability to depression: A dual process model.
    Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 975–1002.
    Bernet, C. Z., Ingram, R. E., & Johnson, B. R. (1993). Self-esteem. In C. G. Costello
    (Ed.), Wiley series on personality processes. Symptoms of depression (pp. 141-
    159). Oxford, England: John Wiley.
    Bibring, E. (1953). The mechanism of depression. In P. Greenacre (Ed.), Affective
    disorders (pp. 13-48). New York: International Universities Press.
    Bos, A. E. R., Huijding, J., Muris, P., Vogel, L. R. R., & Biesheuvel, J. (2010).
    Global, contingent, and implicit self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms
    in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 311–316.
    Bosson, J. K., Brown, G. K., Zeigler-Hill, V., & Swann, W. B. (2003). Self-
    enhancement tendencies among people with high explicit self-esteem: The
    moderating role of implicit self-esteem. Self and Identity, 2, 169-187.
    Bosson, J. K., Swann, W. B., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2000). Stalking the perfect
    measure of implicit self-esteem: The blind men and the elephant revisited?
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 631–643.
    Brim, O. G. (1976). Theories of the male mid-life crisis. Counseling Psychologist, 6,
    3-35.
    Brin˜ol, P., Petty, R. E., & Wheeler, S. C. (2003,). Implicit ambivalence: Implications
    for attitude change. Paper presented at the Attitudinal Incongruence and
    Information Processing Symposium, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the
    Netherlands.
    Briñol, P., Petty, R. E., & Wheeler, S. C. (2006). Discrepancies between explicit and
    implicit self-concepts: Consequences for information processing. Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 154-170.
    Brockner, I., & Guare, I. (1983). Improving the performance of low self-esteem
    individuals: An contributional approach. Academy of Management Journal. 26,
    642-656.
    Brown, J. D. (1993). Self-esteem, mood, and self-evaluation: Changes in mood and
    the way you see you. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(3), 421-
    430.
    Bushman, B. J. & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 219-229.
    Carver, C. S. (2005). Impulse and constraint: Some perspectives from personality
    psychology, convergence with theory in other areas, and potential for integration.
    Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 312–333.
    Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. New
    York: Guilford Press.
    Campbell, J.D. (1986). Similarity and Uniqueness: The Effects of Attribute Type,
    Relevance, and Individual Differences in Self-Esteem and Depression. Journal
    of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 2, 281-294.
    Campbell, J. D. (1990). Self-esteem and clarity of the self-concept. Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology, 59(3), 538-549.
    Carlston, D. E., & Skowronski, J. J. (1986). Trait memory and behavior memory: The
    effects of alternative pathways on impression judgment response times. Journal
    of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 5–13.
    Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative
    affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97(1), 19-35.
    Clark, D., Beck, A.T., & Alford, B.A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive
    theory and therapy of depression. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
    Costello, E. J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence
    and Development of Psychiatric Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence. Arch
    Gen Psychiatry, 60(8), 837–844.
    Coyne, J. C., & Gotlib, I. H. (1983). The role of cognition in depression: A critical
    appraisal. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 472–505.
    Coyne, J. C. (1994). Self-Reported Distress: Analog or Ersatz Depression?
    Psychological Bulletin, 116, 1, 29-45.
    Creemers, D. H. M., Scholte, R. H. J., Engels, R. C. M. E., Prinstein, M. J., & Wiers,
    R. W. (2012). Implicit and explicit self-esteem as concurrent predictors of
    suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and loneliness. Journal of Behavior
    Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43 , 638-646.
    Crocker, J. & Wolfe, C. T. (2001). Contingencies of self-worth. Psychological
    Review, 108(3), 593-623.
    Dasgupta, N., Greenwald. A. G. (2001). On the malleability of automatic attitudes:
    combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals.
    Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81, 800–814.
    De Hart, T., Pelham, B. W., & Tennen, H. (2006). What lies beneath: Parenting style
    and implicit self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 1-17.
    De Houwer, J. (2002). The Implicit Association Test as a tool for studying
    dysfunctional associations in psychopathology: Strengths and limitations.
    Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 33, 115–133.
    De Houwer, J., Teige-Mocigemba, S., Spruyt, A., & Moors, A. (2009). Implicit
    measures: a normative analysis and review. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 347-
    368.
    De Jong, P. J., Van den Hout, M. A., Rietbroek, H., & Huijding, J. (2003).
    Dissociations between implicit and explicit attitudes toward phobic stimuli.
    Cognition & Emotion, 17, 521–545.
    Demo, D. H. (1985). The measurement of self-esteem: Refining our methods. Journal
    of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1490- 1502.
    De Raedta, R., Schacht, R., Franck, E., & De Houwer, J. (2006). Self-esteem and
    depression revisited: Implicit positive self-esteem in depressed patients?
    Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1017–1028.
    DeRubeis, R. J., & Hollon, S. D. (1995). Explanatory style in the treatment of
    depression. In G. M. Buchanan, & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Explanatory style
    (pp. 99–111). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Dickinson, K. A., & Pincus, A. L. (2003). Interpersonal analysis of grandiose and
    vulnerable narcissism. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17(3), 188-207.
    Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Beach, K. (2001). Implicit and explicit attitudes:
    Examination of the relationship between measures of intergroup bias. In R.
    Brown & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology: Vol. 4.
    Intergroup relations (pp. 175–197). Oxford, England: Blackwell.
    Egloff, B., Schwerdtfeger, A., & Schmukle, S. C. (2005). Temporal Stability of the
    Implicit Association Test-Anxiety. Journal of Personality Assessment., 84(1),
    82-88.
    Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept revisited, or a theory of a theory. American
    Psychologist, 28, 404-416.
    Epstein, S. (1994). Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious.
    American Psychologist, 49(8), 709-724.
    Epstein, S., Morling, B. (1995). Is the self motivated to do more than enhance and/or
    verify itself ? In: Kernis H M. (Ed.). Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem. New
    York: Press.
    Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
    Franck, E., De Raedt, R., & De Houwer, J. (2007). Implicit but not explicit self-
    esteem predicts future depressive symptomatology. Behaviour Research and
    Therapy, 45, 2448–2455.
    Franck, E., De Raedt, R., & De Houwer, J. (2008). Activation of latent self-schemas
    as a cognitive vulnerability factor for depression: The potential role of implicit
    self-esteem. Cognition and Emotion, 22 (8), 1588-1599.
    Franck, E., De Raedt, R., Dereu, M., & van den Abbeele, D. (2007). Implicit and
    explicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals with and without suicidal
    ideation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 75-85.
    Friedman, M.A., & Whiaman, M.A. (2004). Implicit Cognition and the Maintenance
    and Treatment of Major Depression. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 11,
    168-177.
    Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional
    processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude
    change. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 692–731.
    Gemar, M. C., Segal, Z. V., Sagrati, S., & Kennedy, S. J. (2001). Mood-Induced
    Changes on the Implicit Association Test in Recovered Depressed Patients.
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 282-289.
    Gillham, J., Reivich, K., Jaycox, L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). Prevention of
    depressive symptoms in school children: Two year followup. Psychological
    Science, 6(6), 343–351.
    Greenier, K.D., Kernis M.H., & Waschull S.B. (1995). Not All High (or Low) Self-
    Esteem People Are the Same. In: Kernis M.H. (eds). Efficacy, Agency, and Self-Esteem. The Springer Series in Social Clinical Psychology. Springer, Boston, MA.
    Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-
    esteem, and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 4–
    27.
    Greenwald, A. G., & Farnham, S. D. (2000). Using the implicit association test to
    measure self-esteem & self-concept. Journal of Personality & Social
    Psychology, 79, 1022–1038.
    Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., &
    Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-
    esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109, 3–25.
    Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual
    differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.
    Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2001). Health of the Implicit Association Test at
    age 3. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 85–93.
    Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the
    Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology, 85 (2), 197–216.
    Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation
    processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348-362.
    Haaga, D. A. F., Dyck, M. J., & Ernst, D. (1991). Empirical status of cognitive theory
    of depression. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 215–236.
    Haeffel, G. J., Abramson, L. Y., Brazy, P. C., Shah, J. Y., Teachmand, B. A., & Nosek,
    B. A. (2007). Explicit and implicit cognition: A preliminary test of a dual-process
    theory of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Behaviour Research and
    Therapy, 45, 1155–1167.
    Hankin, Abramson, Moffitt, Silva, & McGee, (1998). Development of depression
    from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-
    year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 128-140. Harter, S. (1986). Cognitive-developmental processes in the integration of concepts
    about emotions and the self. Social Cognition, 4, 119- 151.
    Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
    Hetts, J. J., Sakuma, M., & Pelham, B. W. (1999). Two roads to positive regard:
    Implicit and explicit self-evaluation and culture. Journal of Experimental Social
    Psychology, 35, 512–559.
    Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect.
    Psychological Review, 94, 319-340.
    Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A
    psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression
    and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3, 51-76.
    Hollon, S. D., Thase, M. E., & Markowitz, J. C. (2002). Treatment and prevention of
    depression. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 3.
    Hoyle, R. H., Kernis, M. H., Leary, M. R., & Baldwin, M. W. (1999). Selfhood:
    Identity, esteem, regulation. Boulder, Colorado: Westview.
    Huijding, J., Bos, A. E. R., & Muris, P. (2011). Enhancing implicit self-esteem in
    children : can a smile make you feel worthwile? Netherlands Journal of
    Psychology, 66, 11-25.
    Jordan, C. H., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2005). Types of high self-esteem and
    prejudice: How implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high
    explicit self-esteem individuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31,
    693–702.
    Jordan, C. H., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., Hoshino-Browne, E., & Correll, J. (2003).
    Secure and Defensive High Self-Esteem. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 85(5), 969-978.
    Kaplan, H., Martin, S., & Johnson, R. (1986). Self-rejection and the explanation of
    deviance: Specification of the structure among latent constructs. American
    Journal of Sociology, 92, 384-411.
    Karpinski, A., & Steinman, R. B. (2006). The single category Implicit Association
    Test as a measure of implicit social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 91, 16-32.
    Kernis, M. H. (2003). Toward a Conceptualization of Optimal Self-Esteem.
    International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory, 14, 1, 1-26.
    Kernis, M. H. (2005). Measuring Self-Esteem in Context: The Importance of Stability
    of Self-Esteem in Psychological Functioning. Journal of Personality, 73, 6,
    1569-1605.
    Kernis, M. H. & Waschull, S. B. (1995). The Interactive Roles Of Stability And Level
    Of Self-Esteem: Research and Theory. Advances in Experimental Social
    Psychology. 27, 93-141.
    Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A., & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more
    to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-
    esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), 1190-1204.
    Kernis, M. H., Whisenhunt, C. R., Waschull, S. B., Greenier, K. D., Berry, A. J.,
    Herlocker, C. E., Anderson., C. A. (1998). Multiple Facets of Self-Esteem and
    their Relations to Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 26(4), 657–668.
    Kernis, M. H., Lakey, C. E., & Heppner, W. L. (2008). Secure versus fragile high self-
    esteem as a predictor of verbal defensiveness: Converging findings across three
    different markers. Journal of Personality, 76, 477–512.
    Koole, S. L., Dijksterhuis, A., & van Knippenberg, A. (2001). What’s in a name:
    implicit self-esteem and the automatic self. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 80, 669-685.
    Kovaks, M., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Maladaptive cognitive structures in depression.
    American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 525-533.
    Lecky, P. (1961). Self-consistency: A theory of personality. New York: Shoe String
    Press.
    Lemmens, L.H.J.M., Roefs, A., Arntz, A., van Teeseling, H.C., Peeters, F., &
    Huibers, M. J. H. (2014). The value of an implicit self-associative measure
    specific to core beliefs of depression. Journal of Behavior Therapy &
    Experimental Psychiatric, 45, 196-202.
    Lewinsohn, P. M., Gotlib, I. H., & Seeley, J. R. (1997). Depression-related
    psychosocial variables: Are they specific to depression in adolescents?
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 365-375.
    Lieberman, M. D. (2000). Intuition: A social cognitive neuroscience approach.
    Psychological Bulletin, 126, 109-137.
    Lieberman, M. D. (2003). Reflexive and reflective judgment processes: A social
    cognitive neuroscience approach. In J. P. Forgas, & K. D. Williams (Eds.),
    Social judgments: Implicit and explicit processes (pp. 44–67). New York, NY7
    Cambridge University Press.
    Lieberman, M. D., Gaunt, R., Gilbert, D. T., & Trope, Y. (2002). Reflexion and
    reflection: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to attributional
    inference. InM. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology,
    vol. 34. (pp.199–249) San Diego, CA, Academic Press, Inc.
    Luminet, O., Bagby, R. M., Wagner, H., Taylor, G. J. & Parker, J. D. A. (1999).
    Relation Between Alexithymia and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: A
    Facet-Level Analysis. Journal of Personality Assessment. Dec1999, 73 ,3, 345.
    Mahalikl, J. R., Talmadge, W. T., Locke, B. D., Scott, R. P. J. (2005). Using the
    Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory to work with men in a clinical
    setting. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 6, 661-674.
    McGregor, I., & Marigold, D. (2003). Defensive zeal and the uncertain self: What
    makes you so sure? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 838–852.
    Metcalfe, J., & Mischel, W. (1999). A hot/cool-system analysis of delay of
    gratification: Dynamics of willpower. Psychological Review, 106, 3–19.
    Millon, T., & Davis, R. D. (1996). An evolutionary theory of personality disorders. In
    J. F. Clarkin & M. F. Lenzenweger (Eds.), Major theories of personality
    disorder (pp. 221-346). New York: Guilford Press.
    Morse, S. J., & Gergen, K. J. (1970). Social comparison, self-consistency, and the
    concept of self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 148-156.
    Murk, C. (1995). Self-esteem: Research, theory, and pratice. New York: Springer.
    Nancanow, C., & Brace, I. (2000). Saying the “right thing”. Coping with Social
    Desirability Bias in Marketing Research. Bristol Business School Teaching and
    Research Review, 3, 1468-4578.
    Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association
    Test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A.Bargh
    (Ed.), Automatic processes in social thinking and behavior (pp. 265–292). New
    York: Psychology Press.
    Nosek, B. A. & Smyth, S. L. (2007). A multitrait-multimethod validation of the
    Implicit Association Test: Implicit and explicit attitudes are related but distinct
    constructs. Experimental Psychology, 54(1), 14-29.
    Nussbaum, K., Wittig, B. A., Hanlon, T. E., Kurland, A. A. (1963). Intravenous
    nialamide in the treatment of depressed female patients. Comprehensive
    Psychiatry, 4, 2, 105-116.
    Orth, U., Robins, R. W. & Meier, L. L. (2009). Disentangling the effects of low self-
    esteem and stressful events on depression: Findings from three longitudinal
    studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(2), 307-321.
    Orth, U., Robins, R. W., Roberts, B. W. (2008). Low self-esteem prospectively
    predicts depression in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Personality
    and Social Psychology, 95, 695–708.
    Orth, U. & Robins, R. W. (2013). Understanding the Link Between Low Self-Esteem
    and Depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 6, 455–460.
    Paradise, A. W. & Kernis, M. H. (2002). Self-esteem and Psychological Well-being:
    Implications of Fragile Self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,
    21, 345-361.
    Hetts, J. J., Sakuma, M., & Pelham, B. W. (1999). Two Roads to Positive Regard:
    Implicit and Explicit Self-Evaluation and Culture. Journal of Experimental
    Social Psychology 35, 512–559.Petty, R. E., Tormala, Z. L., Briñol, P., & Jarvis, W. B. G. (2006). Implicit
    ambivalence from attitude change: An exploration of the PAST model. Journal of
    Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1), 21-41.
    Risch, A. K., Buba, A., Birk, U., Morina, N., Steffens, M. C., & Stangier, U. (2010).
    Implicit self-esteem in recurrently depressed patients. Journal of Behavior
    Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 199-206.
    Roberts, J. E., & Monroe, S. M. (1992). Vulnerable self-esteem and depressive
    symptoms: Prospective findings comparing three alternative conceptualizations.
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 804–812.
    Roberts, J. E., Kassel, J. D., & Gotlib, I. H. (1995). Level and stability of self-esteem
    as predictors of depressive symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences,
    19, 217-224.
    Robins, R. H., Trzesniewski, K. H., Tracy,J. L., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2002).
    Global self-esteem across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 17(3), 423-434.
    Roefs, A., Huijding, J., Smulders, F. T. Y., MacLeod, C. M., de Jong, P. J., Wiers, R.
    W., et al. (2011). Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research.
    Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 149-193.
    Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ:
    Princeton University Press.
    Rudman, L. A., Dohn, M. C., & Fairchild, K. (2007). Implicit self-esteem
    compensation: Automatic threat defense. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 93(5), 798-813.
    Safford, S. M., Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., & Crossfield, A. G. (2007). Negative
    cognitive style as a predictor of negative life events in depression-prone
    individuals: A test of the stress-generation hypothesis. Journal of Affective
    Disorders, 99, 1–3, 147-154.
    Sandier, J., & Joffe, W. G. (1965). Notes on childhood depression. International
    Journal of Psychoanalysis, 46, 88-96.
    Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression management: The self concept, social identity,
    and interpersonal relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Schmukle, S. C., & Egloff, B. (2004). Does the Implicit Association Test for assessing
    anxiety measure trait and state variance? European Journal of Personality, 18,
    483–494.
    Schmukle, S. C., & Egloff, B. (2005). A latent state-trait analysis of implicit and
    explicit personality measures. European Journal of Psychological Assessment,
    21(2), 100–107.
    Schröder-Abé, M., Rudolph, A., Wiesner, A. & Schütz A. (2007). Self-esteem
    discrepancies and defensive reactions to social feedback. International Journal
    of Psychology, 42, 3 , 174-183.
    Seligman, M.E.P., Schulman, P., DeRubeis, R.J., & Hollon, S.D. (1999). The
    prevention of depression and anxiety. Prevention and Treatment, 2.
    Shastri, L., & Ajjanagadde, V. (1993). From simple associations to systematic
    reasoning: A connectionist representation of rules, variables, and dynamic
    bindings using temporal synchrony. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 417–
    494.
    Sloman, S. A., (1996). The empirical case for two forms of reasoning. Psychological
    Bulletin, 119, 3–22.
    Smith, E. R., & DeCoster, J. (2000). Dual-process models in social and cognitive
    psychology: Conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems.
    Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 108–131.
    Smolensky, P. (1988). On the proper treatment of connectionism. Behavioral and
    Brain Sciences, 11, 1–23.
    Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. (2013). Does Low Self-Esteem Predict Depression and
    Anxiety? A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139,
    1, 213–240.
    Sowislo, J. F., & Orth, U. & Meier, L. L. (2014). What constitutes vulnerable self-
    esteem? Comparing the prospective effects of low, unstable, and contingent self-
    esteem on depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(4), 737-
    753.
    Spencer, S. J., Jordan, C. H., Logel, C. E. R., & Zanna, M. P. (2005). Nagging doubts
    and a glimmer of hope: The role of implicit self-esteem in self-image
    maintenance. In A. Tesser, J. V. Wood, & D. A. Stapel (Eds.), On building,
    defending and regulating the self: A psychological perspective (pp. 153–170).
    New York: Psychology Press.
    Steinberg, J. A., Karpinski, A., & Alloy, L. B. (2007). The Exploration of Implicit
    Aspects of Self-esteem in Vulnerability – Stress Models of Depression. Self and
    Identity, 6, 101-117.
    Steiger, A. E., Allemand, M., Robins, R. W. & Fend, H. A. (2014). Low and
    decreasing self-esteem during adolescence predict adult depression two decades
    later. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(2), 325-338.
    Swann, W. B., Jr., & Schroeder, D. G. (1995). The search for beauty and truth: a
    framework for understanding reactions to evaluations. Personality and Social
    Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1307-1318.
    Tabachnik, N., Crocker, J., & Alloy, L. B. (1983). Depression, social comparison, and
    the “false consensus” effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 6
    88-699.
    Teasdale, T. D. (1983). Negative thinking in depression: Cause, effect, or reciprocal
    relationship? Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy, 5, 3–25.
    Teglasi, H. & Epstein, S. (1998). Temperament and personality theory: The
    perspective of cognitive-experiential self-theory. School Psychology Review, 27,
    4, 534.
    Tennen, H.&Herzberger, S. (1987). Depression, self-esteem, and the absence of self-
    protective attributional biases. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 52, 72-80.
    Tice, D. M. (1993). The social motivations of people with low self-esteem. In R.
    Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem: The puzzle of low self-regard(pp. 55-85). New
    York: Plenum Press.
    Vollmann, M., Weber, H., & Wiedig, M. (2004). Self-esteem and anger-related
    reactions. Zeitschrift fu¨r Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 25, 47–
    56.
    Wylie, R. C. (1979). The self-concept (rev. ed.). Lincoln: University of Nebraska
    Press.
    Zeigler-Hill. (2006). Discrepancies Between Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem:
    Implications for Narcissism and Self-Esteem Instability. Journal of Personality,
    74:1, 119-144.
    Zeigler-Hill, V. & Terry, C. (2007). Perfectionism and explicit self-esteem: The
    moderating role of implicit self-esteem. Journal of self and identity, 6, 2, 137-
    153.
    Zelenski, J. M., & Larsen, R. J. (2003). The importance of knowing what we want:
    How implicit and explicit motives interact to predict well-being. Paper presented
    at the meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Los
    Angeles, CA.
    Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S., Schooler, T. Y. (2000). A model of dual attitudes.
    Psychological Review, 107(1), 101-126.
    Wink, P., & Gough, H. G. (1990). New narcissism scales for the California
    Psychological Inventory and MMPI. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54,
    446–462.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    心理學系
    103752019
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0103752019
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    201901.pdf1651KbAdobe PDF0View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback