日本國會眾議院議員選舉制度，原採用「單記非移讓式投票法」，亦即中選舉區比較多數當選制。1988年以來日本一連串的腐化醜聞，要求政治改革的呼聲不斷，終於1994年1月日本國會通過將中選區制改為「小選區比例代表並立制」。本文將描述改革過程，並介紹新選舉制度。1996年10月20日日本眾議院議員選舉，首次採用「小選區比例代表並立制」。本文將描述此次選舉實況，並分析其所造成的政治效應。本文研究1996年選舉結果驗證：（1）日本新選舉制度的設計，對自民黨最有利。（2）新選舉制度並未能達到改善金權政治體質，以及導向政黨與政策本位的選舉競爭之預期改革目標。 The Japanese electoral system had adopted the single non-transferable vote (SNTV). Under SNTV, three to five members were elected from each constituency based on a plurality of votes. However, a series of corruption scandals since 1988 in Japan had damaged confidence in political system. As a result, Diet passed new measures transforming the middle-size district system into a mixed-member system in January 1994, combining single-member district & PR party lists. This article introduces the reform process and the new electoral system.It was the first time that Japanese House of Representatives adopted the single-member district & PR party lists parallel system on October 20, 1996. The article is intended to describe the electoral process and analyze its political consequences.The preliminary conclusions of the study are:(1) The new electoral system in Japan is of great advantage to LDP.(2) The new electoral system didn't correct the 'money politics' and transform the electoral competition from candidate-oriented to party and policy-oriented in Japan.