|題名: ||政治引渡及其對雙邊安全關係的影響 : Fethullah Gülen的引渡|
Political extraditions and their impact on bilateral security relations : the extradition of Fethullah Gülen
Poleo, Felix Jose
Felix Jose Poleo
|上傳時間: ||2017-11-01 14:32:36 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: ||本論文旨在通過運用羅伯特·阿克塞爾德（Robert Axelrod）提出的合作理論，對政治引渡和土耳其與美國的雙邊安全關係的研究做深入探討。 至今，關於引渡的學術研究大部分都聚焦在其法律影響上。與此相反，本論文則側重於引渡對雙邊安全關係的影響。除此之外，本論文也將土耳其的國內政治壓力納入研究，用以解釋本論文研究案例之法圖拉·葛蘭（Fethullah Gülen）引渡請求背後隱藏的真正動機。本論文對土耳其正義發展黨（AKP）於2002年上臺後至2017年9月期間的雙邊安全關係進行詳細研究。|
對安全關係的分析表明，美國可能拒絕土耳其對法圖拉·葛蘭這一引渡請求的負面影響是由所謂的戰略夥伴關係的不穩定和脆弱性造成的。然而，儘管該負面影響以及土美安全關係的對話雙方對該事件的不同感知有導致外交關係斷絕的可能，本論文的觀點是土美安全關係會因為對兩國未來相互作用的期待而繼續保持。引渡的後果反覆運算特性和兩國在安全事項中依然存在相互依存關係也激勵兩國繼續合作。另外，本文也通過分析對伊朗國王以及愛爾蘭叛亂成員的引渡請求——前者導致外交關係斷絕而後者沒有——來比較請求國與被請求國間的利益衝突。此外，對土耳其總理雷傑普·塔伊普·埃爾多安（Recep Tayyip Erdoğan）及其政府在2016年7月15日政變之後咄咄逼人地尋求引渡法圖拉·葛蘭所倚仗的國內壓力的分析也展現了法圖拉·葛蘭能夠獲得政治罪犯庇護的原因。同時，這也表明了對美國的威脅被用於操控引渡程式，並被用作政治權宜之計。為了避免有罪不罰現象以及仇恨的延續，本文作者建議應用Aut Dedere Aut Judicare原則來避免當葛蘭根據美國法律被判有罪而逃避懲罰的情況發生。作者知道，這只是一個嘗試性的分析，因為關於這個事件的決定還沒有出臺.
This thesis aims at augmenting and contributing to the study of political extraditions and Turkey-US bilateral security relations through the lenses of Cooperation Theory proposed by Robert Axelrod. Regarding extradition, most researches have focused on the legal implications. Contrarily, this thesis focuses on the implications on bilateral security relations. Moreover, the domestic political pressures of Turkey are also included to depict the real motives behind the extradition request of Fethullah Gülen, which is the case subject of study. This thesis investigates the bilateral security relations since the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in Turkey came into power from 2002 to September of 2017.
The analysis of the security relations shows that negative impact the possible denial of this extradition is caused due to the instability and fragility of what was once called a strategic partnership. Despite the negative impact of a possible denial of Turkey’s request to extradite Fethullah Gülen from the United States and the perception by different interlocutors of Turkey-US security relations that it can lead to a break of diplomatic relations, this thesis argues that their security relationship will continue based on the expectations of future interactions. Both, the iterated characteristic of extraditions and the still existence of interdependence in security matters provide for incentives to continue their cooperation. In addition, the extradition requests of the Iranian Shah and that of the members of the Irish Insurgency are also examined to provide a comparison of conflict of interests between the requesting and requested states, one that led to the break of diplomatic relations and one that did not. Moreover, in regards to the analysis of the domestic pressures that motivated Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and his government to aggressively seek the extradition of Fehtullah Gülen in the aftermath of July 15, 2016 coup d’état, it shows why he can be protected under the political offense exception. Furthermore, it shows that the threats to the United States have been used to manipulate the extradition process and for political expediency. In order to avoid impunity and the continuance of animosity, the application of the principle Aut Dedere Aut Judicare is recommended if Gülen is found guilty of crimes also punishable in the United States. The author is aware that this is a tentative analysis since a decision on the matter has yet to be made.
Key Words: Extradition, Security, Cooperation, Fethulllah Gülen, Turkey, United States.
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