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    題名: 俄羅斯農業發展研究 : 以加入WTO之過程為探討中心
    The study of Russian Agriculture Development : Focusing on Participation in World Trade Organization
    作者: 湯鈞佑
    Tang, Jyun-You
    貢獻者: 魏百谷
    湯鈞佑
    Tang, Jyun-You
    關鍵詞: 俄羅斯
    農業
    世界貿易組織
    俄羅斯農業
    Russia
    Agriculture
    WTO
    Russian agriculture
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-09-13 15:34:18 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 由於俄羅斯加入世界貿易組織後,農業依據不同產品有六至八年的過渡期。是故本研究在時間設定上,選擇以在1991至2012年俄羅斯加入WTO之際作為研究之範疇,研究俄羅斯在蘇聯瓦解後至加入WTO之農業政策的發展;並藉由俄國入世之歷程與對農業之承諾,研究入世對俄羅斯農業政策之影響。

    研究發現,俄羅斯1990年至2012年之農業政策發展,三任不同的領導人各有不同之特色;蘇聯解體後,葉爾欽政府在歐美強權的指引下,開始以華盛頓共識為本的農業轉型計畫,推動農企業與土地所有權私有化,並推廣私人農場之經營模式,但由於政策缺乏連貫性與不符國內國情,導致農業生產衰退;普丁時期藉著農業土地流通法的通過,保障了農民擁有自由支配土地的權利,並重新推廣大型農場,改善俄羅斯農業的生產結構;而梅德韋傑夫則透過稅收與信貸的優惠,鼓勵農業生產與出口,並為了因應加入WTO可能造成之衝擊,給予國內政策諸多扶持與保護。在俄羅斯加入WTO之歷程中,由於俄羅斯經濟體制與一般市場經濟的差異,使得俄國入世過程產生諸多爭議,屬於敏感產業的農業更是在協商過程中不斷提起的爭議議題;而分析俄羅斯加入WTO對於農業之承諾內容,可發現俄羅斯農業會在國內補助、關稅與關稅配額三大項目會造成影響。可以預期的是,隨著俄羅斯入世後至2020年農業過渡期結束為止,俄羅斯政府在這期間會在世界貿易組織允許的法規下,制定足以扶持與保護本國農產業的各項新法規,將入世所造成之風險降到最低。
    As Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), agriculture industry has six to eight years of transition based on different products. Therefore, this study choose the time from 1991 to 2012 as a representative, to study Russian agricultural policy development since the collapse of the Soviet Union to become the member of WTO. And try to understand the impact of WTO accession on the Russian agricultural policy by studying the process of Russia's accession to the WTO and its agriculture commitment to WTO

    The study argued, three different leaders have various characteristics in Russia's agricultural policy development from 1990 to 2012. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Yeltsin government began its agricultural transformation program based on Washington Consensus. To promote the privatization of agricultural enterprises and land ownership, and to promote the private farm business model. However, due to lack of coherence and inconsistency with domestic conditions, the program has led the agricultural production decline. After Putin took office, he used the adoption of agricultural land circulation law, to protect the farmers have the right to dominate the land. And to re-promote large-scale farms, improve the Russian agricultural production structure. And Medvedev took the tax and credit concessions to encourage agricultural production and exports, and in order to respond to the impact WTO may be caused, he gave a lot of support and protection to domestic agriculture. In the course of Russia's accession to the WTO, due to the differences between the Russian economic system and the general market economy has made lot of controversy during accession. As a part of sensitive industries, agriculture is the controversial issue which is constantly being raised in the consultation process. Analysis of Russia's accession to the WTO for the commitment to agriculture content, it can be found that the domestic subsidies, tariff and tariff quota will face impact. It is expected that, following the end of Russia's accession to the end of the agricultural period in 2020. During this period, the Russian government will develop new policy that will support and protect its own agricultural industry under the laws and regulations allowed by the World Trade Organization, and minimize the risks associated with accession to the WTO.
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    Аналитический центр «ВТО-информ» .(2011). Перечень тарифных уступок. <http://wto-inform.ru/conditions/>
    Аналитический центр «ВТО-информ» .(2012). “Потери регионов России от ВТО.” <http://wto-inform.ru/upload/map/_predposylki_i_metodologiya.pdf>
    ВЕЧЕРНЕМ, О. (1994). ПОСТАНОВЛЕНИЕ ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ. Москва, 3(1237).<http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102071473&rdk=&backlink=1>
    Георгиевич, Сергей (2003), “Сельское хозяйство России: результаты реформы,” <http://www.situation.ru/app/j_art_44.htm>
    Меры по адаптации экономики Российской Федерации к условиям членства в ВТО, http://pandia.ru/text/80/208/15427.php.
    Президент России.(2002). “Вступительное слово на заседании Государственного совета по вопросу об обороте земель сельскохозяйственного назначения.” <http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/21572>
    Президент России.(2002).”Владимир Путин провел заседание президиума Государственного совета по вопросу об обороте земель сельскохозяйственного назначения.” http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/42862
    Сергей Георгиевич.(2003). “Белая книга. Экономические реформы в России 1991—2001 .” <http://www.situation.ru/app/rs/books/whitebook/whitebook_content.htm
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    102263006
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1022630061
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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