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    題名: 從公民到難民 : 緬甸羅興亞穆斯林離散之研究
    From Citizen to Refugee : the Study of Burmese Rohingya Muslim Diaspora
    作者: 林靖諺
    Lin, Ching Yen
    貢獻者: 林長寬
    Lin, Chang Kuan
    林靖諺
    Lin, Ching Yen
    關鍵詞: 羅興亞
    宗教衝突
    難民
    離散
    緬甸
    Rohingya Muslim
    Religious conflict
    Refugee
    Diaspora
    Burma/Myanmar
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-09-13 15:04:57 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 羅興亞穆斯林(Rohingya Muslim)或稱阿拉干穆斯林(Arakanese Muslim),是居住在鄰近孟加拉的緬甸若開邦北部 (或稱阿拉干Arakan)穆斯林社群,大批印度穆斯林在二十世紀初殖民時期遷徙至阿拉干地區,形成新(印度)、舊(阿拉干)穆斯林混居,也導致羅興亞人之身分多有爭議。
    因經濟資源壟斷、政治力量競爭及宗教文化衝突等原因,緬甸在1930年及1938年分別爆發反印度及反穆斯林暴動。而阿拉干穆斯林發起將阿拉干地區併入東巴基斯坦(即孟加拉)的政治行動未果後,除了以聖戰軍(Mujahideen)與緬甸政府對抗,並尋求設立自治區外,自1960年代發展以標榜阿拉干原住民的「羅興亞」認同,爭取內部凝聚及外部支持。
    在宇努政府(U Nu)主政下,羅興亞人尚能以公民身份獲得參政權,而尼溫軍政府1978年發動清查非法入境者的龍王行動(Nagamin)及1982年實施新公民法後,羅興亞人公民權被徹底剝奪,並被迫在1978、1991-92、2012、2015及2016年間經歷數波難民離散,遷徙至孟加拉、馬來西亞及泰國等國。
    「阿拉干羅興亞難民委員會」( RARC)是難民自身所建立的難民社群組織(RCOs),不僅為羅興亞社群發聲,亦與聯合國難民署(UNHCR) 及非政府組織(NGOs)等單位合作,發展其社群力量。而在馬來西亞政府默許及容忍下,羅興亞難民獲得安全棲身之所,除可透過通婚取得永久居留外,在開放羅興亞難民工作許可等政策開放下,羅興亞難民在地融合及生活發展。
    本文以滯留馬來西亞安邦的緬甸羅興亞難民社群為主研究對象,探討羅興亞溯源、緬甸佛教徒與穆斯林之宗教衝突、羅興亞離散、及難民社群組織發展。
    Rohingya Muslim (or Arakanese Muslim) have been residing in Northen Rakhine (or Arakan) in Burma/Myanmarfor centuries , with the mass inflow of Indians during British Colonial Period into Burma, Muslim population grew up and it resulted in competition,then ethnic tension simmered between Indians and Burmeses.
    The conflicts between Buddhist and Muslim bursted between 1930 and 1938 , and fail of integration of Arakan with East Pakistan (Bangladesh ) triggered Arakanese Muslim’s militant autonomy operation and the Arakanese Muslim created the “Rohingya” ethnic identity movement in the 1960s.
    The cleaning of illegal immigrant operation “ Nagamin ” in1978 , implementation of new Citizen Law in 1982, and religious and ecthnic conflict had resulted Rohingya in exile in 1978 ,1991-2, 2013, 2015 and 2016 , therefore Rohingya migrated to Bangladesh , Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia.
    With the help of UNHCR and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) ,the Refugee Community Organizations(RCOs) such as Rohingya Arakanese Refugee Committee (RARC) not only play the role as intermediator between community and NGOs , but also lobbied the Malaysia government.
    This dissertation focuses on the Burmese Rohingya communities in Ampang Malaysia and the origin of Rohingya, the ethnic and religious conflicts between Buddhists and Muslims , the Rohingya Diaspora and development of RCOs.
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