These four social innovation cases have different target groups; however, all of them serve the underprivileged. The ideas behind all the cases were initiated by a small group of people. Except for the Paper Windmill, the other three cases were mainly carried out by a persistent individual at the initial triggering stage. All four cases were observed to have initial leader(s), good execution, critical resources and several partners, illustrating LERP at the triggering stage. The four cases also gained an enlarged partnership over the years as their reputation spread. With more and more partners and supporters, the organization’s execution power increased. Their efficient execution helped activate the stakeholders to join the efforts. Such activation leads to more resources and attracts more leaders to initiate a wide range of activities and form a self-organizing ecosystem. All four cases demonstrated the PEARL model at the self-organizing stage as well.
The Impact of Societal and Social Innovation pp 99-112