This chapter uses the eight cases to explain the application of the four theories introduced in Chap. 2, namely development theory, decision-making theory, ANT theory, and action theory. Five policy implications are explained, including foster an enabling environment for visionary leaders to act on their vision; establish a private–public partnership mechanism to solve societal and social problems; encourage vertical and horizontal integration to solidify structural and systemic change; capitalize on one’s own strength or unique culture; and involve stakeholders in creating a sustainable ecosystem. Six future directions are also proposed. Societal or social innovation is, an important element of the new economic thinking and should be central to the policy agendas of governments; even if progress has been made in some countries, more remains to be done.
The Impact of Societal and Social Innovation pp 113-127