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    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/112524
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/112524


    Title: 二歲幼兒在工具使用情境下的觀察學習:模仿與仿效
    Two-Year-Old Children's Observational Learning in Tool-Use Contexts: Imitation versus Emulation
    Authors: 鍾宛玲;黃啟泰
    Chung, Wan-Ling
    Huang, Chi-Tai
    Contributors: 心理系
    Date: 2017-003
    Issue Date: 2017-09-05 17:24:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 發展心理學過去研究的模仿行為,近來被質疑是否更適合解釋為比較心理學領域探討的非模仿社會學習過程。本研究修訂過去動物行為學家研究工具使用行為設計的陷阱管子作業,探討幼兒的模仿與仿效學習。在四種實驗情境中,二歲幼兒觀看酬賞物被取出或被推進陷阱:在兩組大人示範情境,幼兒目睹實驗者成功取物或嘗試但失敗;在兩組無人示範情境,幼兒觀看棒子自發運動,模擬大人成功取物或嘗試失敗過程中的物體運動軌跡。兩組控制組包含一組基準組與一組吸引幼兒注意相關空間位置的控制動作情境。結果發現,不論示範是否成功,觀看大人示範的幼兒比觀看無人示範的幼兒與兩組控制組更傾向使用示範方式取物。無人示範組的仿效表現與兩組控制組沒有差異,均比大人示範組更傾向使用自我探索發現的方式取物。雖然幼兒能透過不同訊息仿效作業目標,只有觀察大人示範能影響其是否使用模仿策略解決工具使用問題。
    Recent research has challenged whether what is typically called imitation in developmental psychology may be understood as a host of non-imitative processes discussed in the comparative literature. In this study, we tested young children's imitation and emulation learning using a modified trap-tube task that has been devised to investigate tool use in ethological studies. In the four experimental conditions, 2-year-old children watched as a reward was released or trapped. In two human conditions, they observed the experimenter attempt either successfully or unsuccessfully with a tool stick. In two ghost conditions, they saw the tool move as if self-propelled and mimic the object movements involved in the experimenter's correct solution or failed attempts. Two control conditions included a baseline and an action control in which the experimenter manipulated particular locations with irrelevant acts. Results indicated that, regardless of success, only following human demonstrations did children imitate the tool-use more than did those in the ghost and two control conditions. Children in these latter conditions did not differ in the tendency to use emulation t o solve the task, and emulated more than did children seeing human demonstrations. Despite the relative tendency to emulate the goal of the task, the study suggests an important role of observing human modeling for children's learning about tool-use through imitation.
    Relation: 中華心理學刊,59(1) , 29-44
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: http://dx.doi.org/10.6129/CJP.20170205
    DOI: 10.6129/CJP.20170205
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 期刊論文

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