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    題名: 恐怖組織「伊斯蘭國」(Islamic State) 傳播策略之研究
    The communication strategies of terrorist organization – A case study of Islamic State(IS)
    作者: 李毓珊
    Lee, Yoke San
    貢獻者: 張京育
    Chang, King Yuh
    李毓珊
    Lee, Yoke San
    關鍵詞: 伊斯蘭國
    傳播策略
    恐怖主義
    恐怖組織
    恐怖行銷
    Islamic State
    Communication strategies
    Terrorism
    Terrorist organization
    Terror marketing
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2017-08-28 11:21:16 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 伊斯蘭國2014年6月悍然宣佈建立「哈里發國」後,在短短數年內竄升成為當前最危險、最富有、最具影響力與知名度的恐怖組織,更被聯合國安理會認定為「國際和平與安全面臨前所未有的全球性威脅」。然而,伊斯蘭國並非一群僥倖得逞的暴徒,而是透過各種策略性手段急遽壯大的恐怖強敵。精準的傳播策略是伊斯蘭國快速崛起的重要因素,通過專業與系統性的宣傳機制,特別是社群媒體的運用,成功獲得全球各地的年輕人對組織的認同與支持,繼而加入和移居伊斯蘭國。

    本研究認為,伊斯蘭國的傳播策略與內容主要可分成三大部分:宗教理念與政治訴求的宣傳、對敵對勢力或異教徒的恐嚇威脅,以及吸引外籍人士加入或移居伊斯蘭國。伊斯蘭國通過官方雜誌、自製視頻和社群媒體等多種宣傳管道,宣揚恐怖主義思潮,同時散播恐懼氛圍和塑造社會輿論,進一步擴大組織影響力。

    面對伊斯蘭國的壯大與極端思維的滲透,除了關注其發起的恐怖行動,更需警惕其意識形態的傳播,因此有必要深入探究其傳播策略的實施與運用,瓦解伊斯蘭國在宣傳戰上的優勢地位,遏止該組織繼續擴張。
    In June 2014, Islamic State (IS) formally declared the establishment of “Caliphate” and had become the richest, most dangerous, most influential and well-known terrorist organization in just a few years. At the same time, United Nations Security Council had determined that IS constituted an “unprecedented threat” to international peace and security. However, IS is not a group of “lucky” thugs, but a strong enemy of terror that grows rapidly through a variety of strategic means.

    The effective communication strategies play an important role in the rise of IS. Through the professional and systematic publicity mechanism, especially the use of social media, IS had gained the recognition and support of the youths around the world, as well as the immigration to the regions that controlled by IS.

    This study assumes that the communication strategies and media content of IS can be divided into three parts, which include the propaganda of religious concept and political appeal, the intimidation and threat to hostile forces or Infidel, and the attraction for foreign fighters of joining and immigrating to IS.

    As the expansion of IS and the infiltration of extreme ideology is getting serious nowadays, it is more vigilant to the spread of extreme ideology in addition to concern about the terrorist acts. Thus, it is necessary to discuss further about the implementation of its communication strategies so that the anti-terrorism alliance can collapse the dominance of IS in the propaganda war and impede IS from the continuous expansion.
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    二、 中文專書
    中國現代國際關係研究所反恐怖研究中心編著,2001,《國際恐怖主義與反恐怖鬥爭》。北京:時事出版社。
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    三、 中文期刊論文
    王一帆、梅建明、高賀,2016,〈「伊斯蘭國」宣傳策略分析及抑制措施〉。《雲南行政學院學報》6:68-75。
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    包澄章、孫德剛,2016,〈「伊斯蘭國」組織與中東恐怖主義治理新理念〉。《理論視野》 2:57-62。
    朱蓓蕾,2016,〈「伊斯蘭國」新興恐怖威脅評析〉。《展望與探索》 14(2):17-24。
    李寧,2015,〈「伊斯蘭國」影響下的西方青年極端化現象分析〉。《阿拉伯世界研究》 6:88-106。
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    四、 英文專書
    Barnett, B., & Reynolds, A., 2009, Terrorism and The Press: An Uneasy Relationship. New York: Peter Lang.
    Chaliand, G., & Blin, A., 2007, The History of Terrorism: from Antiquity to Al Qaeda. California: University of California Press.
    Hoffman, B., 1998, Inside Terrorism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Hoffman, B., 2002, “The Emergence of the New Terrorism.” Pp. 30-49 in The New Terrorism: Anatomy, Trends and Counter-Strategies, edited by Tan, Andrew and Ramakrishna, Kumar. Singapore: Eastern Universities Press.
    Jowett, G., & O'Donnell, V., 2015, Propaganda & Persuasion (Sixth Edition). California: Sage.
    Kurtz, L. R., 1999, Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict, Three-Volume Set. California: Academic Press.
    Laqueur, W., 1977, Terrorism. London: Sphere Books Ltd.
    Laqueur, W., 1987, The Age of Terrorism. Boston: Little & Brown.
    Laqueur, W., 2001, The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction. London: Phoenix Press.
    Martin, G., 2013, Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues. California: Sage Publications.
    Schmid, A. P., Albert, J. et al., 1988, Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories and Literature. New Jersey: Transaction Books.
    Simon, J., 2016, Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat. New York: Prometheus Books.
    Taylor, R., 2002, The History of Terrorism. California: Lucent Books.
    Thornton, T., 2006, “Terror as a Weapon of Political Agitation.” Pp. 41-63 in Terrorism: Critical Concepts in Political Science, Vol.3, edited by Rapoport, David. London: Routledge.
    Weimann, G., 2006, Terror on the Internet: The New Arena, The New Challenges. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.
    Wilkinson, P., 2006, Terrorism versus Democracy: The Liberal State Response (Second Edition). New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

    五、 英文期刊/官方報告
    Amble, J., 2012, “Combating Terrorism in the New Media Environment”. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 35:339-353.
    Berger, J., & Morgan, J.,2015, The ISIS Twitter Census: Defining and Describing the Population of ISIS Supporters on Twitter. Washington: The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World 1-65.
    Bodine-Baron, E., Helmus, T., Magnuson, M., & Winkelman, Z., 2016, Examining ISIS Support and Opposition Networks on Twitter. California: RAND Corporation.
    Fischer, P., Fischer, J., Weisweiler, S. & Frey, D., 2010, “Terrorism as Collective Communication: The Collective Communication Model of Terrorism (CCMT)”. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 4(9): 692-703.
    Ganor, B., 2002, “Defining Terrorism: Is One Man's Terrorist Another Man's Freedom Fighter?”. Police Practice and Research 3(4): 287-304.
    Gambhir, H., 2014, “Dabiq: The Strategic Messaging of the Islamic State”. Institute for the Study of War 1-12.
    Jenkins, B., 1974, International Terrorism: A New Kind of Warfare. California: RAND Corporation.
    Jenkins, B., 1980, The Study of Terrorism: Definitional Problems. California: RAND Corporation.
    Kydd, A., & Walter, B., 2006, “The Strategies of Terrorism”. International Security 31(1): 49-80.
    Laqueur, W., 1996, “Postmodern Terrorism”. Foreign Affairs 75(5): 24-36.
    Lynch, M., 2006, “Al-Qaeda’s Media Strategies”. The National Interest 83: 50-56.
    Nacos, B., 2003, “The Terrorist Calculus behind 9-11: A Model for Future Terrorism?”. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 26: 1-16.
    The Soufan Group, 2017, Foreign Fighters: An Updated Assessment of the Flow of Foreign Fighters into Syria and Iraq. New York: The Soufan Group.
    Weimann, G., 2004, “How Modern Terrorism Uses the Internet”. United States Institute of Peace Special Report 116: 1-12.
    Weimann, G., 2007, “Mass-media Theater”. eJournal USA 1-8.
    Weimann, G., 2014, “New Terrorism and New Media”. Commons Lab of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars’ Report 1-17.

    六、 官方網站
    BBC News http://www.bbc.com/
    Clarion Project https://clarionproject.org/
    Central Intelligence Agency https://www.cia.gov/index.html
    Conflict Armament Research http://www.conflictarm.com/
    Department of Homeland Security https://www.dhs.gov/
    European Union http://europa.eu/european-union/index_en
    Federal Bureau of Investigation https://www.fbi.gov/
    Forbes https://www.forbes.com/
    Global Terrorism Database https://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/
    Jihadology http://jihadology.net/
    Marist Institute for Public Opinion http://maristpoll.marist.edu/
    National Counterterrorism Center https://www.nctc.gov/
    NATO Standardization Office http://nso.nato.int/nso/
    Rasmussen Reports http://www.rasmussenreports.com/
    The White House https://www.whitehouse.gov/
    United Nations http://www.un.org/en/index.html
    United Nations Office of Legal Affairs http://legal.un.org/ola/
    United States Department of Defense https://www.defense.gov/
    United States Department of State https://www.state.gov/
    中央通訊社 http://www.cna.com.tw/
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    新聞學系
    102451024
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1024510243
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[新聞學系] 學位論文

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