Applying TWINS framework to examine water security in India’s relations with Pakistan and Bangladesh
|上傳時間: ||2017-07-04 09:49:52 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: ||雖然政治學界廣泛地討論水資源安全的問題, 可是迄今為止絕大部分的研究採取合作衝突相兩者互排斥的分析方法。有些學派主張水資源短缺一定導致衝突, 而制度主義學派認為在大多數情況下水資源安全推動國際合作。環境安全與衝突研究中的科學共識認為水資源不是衝突的起因而是合作的理由, 於是繼續提倡合作衝突兩者相互排斥的概念。筆者認為如今的非黑即白分析尚未能夠正確描述水資源安全的衝突合作相互作用的實際。碰到了這個研究空白的問題, 筆者應用 Naho Mirumachi發展的「TWINS」架構來檢視印度-巴基斯但與印度-孟加拉關係中的水資源安全。「TWINS」架構讓我們深入地檢視「1996年12月12日印孟簽署分享恆河水條約」與「1960印度河水域條約」這兩個條約。新世紀增長需求跟耗盡水資源的問題越來越清楚地標明, 根據這兩個條約，水資源的供水與解決衝突能力有限。雖然被視為跨界河川合作的成功故事, 可是這兩個條約不足消除潛在衝突, 而進一步表明衝與合作是同時存在的。最近印度政府表明關於水資源的政策改變, 比如最佳地利用1960印度河水域條約的規定或清拆法拉卡堰。為了防止安全化過程升高, 立即開展有意義的對話至關重要。|
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