1955-1963年，爲越南共和國首任總統吳廷琰主政時期，綜觀期間之華人政策，實可歸納爲「使土生華僑依法直接取得越籍」、「採歧視性措施迫令華僑轉籍」，以及「改造華人體系，俾使華僑社會轉化爲華裔社會」三大面向。所謂「使土生華僑依法直接取得越籍」，係指西貢當局藉頒布越南共和國國籍法等相關法令，嚴明彼等國籍之界限；所謂「採歧視性措施迫令華僑轉籍」，係指西貢當局經推行各種歧視性措施迫令華僑轉籍，俾境內華人悉屬越民；至於「改造華人體系，俾使華僑社會轉化爲華裔社會」，係指西貢當局爲進一步造成華人實質越化（指扭轉華僑之國家意識與文化認同）之過程。本文擬就此三大面向爲主軸，藉以探討1955-1964年越南共和國華人政策之特質與導因。It was the period of 1955-1963 when Ngo Dinh Diem, the first president of the Republic of Vietnam (ROV), had found a set of policy toward ethnic Chinese. To make a comprehensive survey, the policies during the period of ROV could be sum up into three main dimensions such as ”making locally born ethnic Chinese to acquire the nationality of ROV according to laws,” ”making discriminatory policies to compel Huaqiao (Chinese nationals residing abroad) to change their nationalities,” and ”transforming the society of Huaqiao into the one of Vietnamese of ethnic Chinese by a reconstruction of social system.” The so-called ”making locally born ethnic Chinese to acquire the nationality of ROV according to laws,” means the Saigon government compartmentalized the boundary of nationalities between ROC and ROV through launching nationality laws. The so-called ”making discriminatory policies to compel Huaqiao to change their nationalities,” means the Saigon government tried to transform the ethnic Chinese into citizens of ROV through kinds of compelling measures. Last, the so-called ”transforming the society of Huaqiao into the one of Vietnamese of ethnic Chinese by a reconstruction of social system,” means the procession that the Saigon government intended to assimilate ethnic Chinese essentially, reversed the Huaqiao consciousness and the culture identity. The author would like to probe into characteristics and factors of ROV's policies toward ethnic Chinese though discussions of the above three main dimensions.