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    Title: 秩序、修煉、權化與懲戒—從經典與實踐看印度宗教社會思想史中的神人身體觀
    Authors: 黃柏棋
    Contributors: 宗教所
    Keywords: 身體觀;整體論;原子論;梨俱吠陀;原人;奧義書;;;初期佛教;身至念;不淨身;《白騾奧義書》;《薄伽梵歌》;自在天;觀自在;信奉;密續;真言化身
    Images of the Body;Holism;Atomism;?g Veda;Puru?a;Upani?ad;?tman;Brahman;Early Buddhism;K?yagat?sati;P?tik?ya;?vet??vatara Upani?ad;Bhagavad G?t?;??vara;Avalokite?vara. Bhakti;Tantra;Ny?sa
    Date: 2016
    Issue Date: 2017-05-17 15:44:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 此一研究計畫,已有了具體成果,亦即完成了《印度宗教社會思想中的身體觀》一書之書稿。全書共分為三部分。章節上安排上有如下特色。第一部分主要以歷史演變的角度來探討身體觀在初期印宗教社會思想上的一些來龍去脈。這一部分是屬於早期婆羅門跟沙門之間的互動與對話,相當清楚地讓人見到其中之起承轉合。具體言之,身體觀在印度思想史上所扮演的重要角色,從《梨俱吠陀•原人歌》在印度思想上永恆回歸之影響即可看出端倪。而不管是印度正統對於整體身體觀的辯護,或非正統沙門傳承對於整體身體觀之批判,都可以見出身體之事在印度心靈史上所保有之根本而必須加以面對的地位。第二部分是對自在思想天與身體觀的探討,而基本上是以《白騾奧義書》為中心所展開之思想探討。《白騾奧義書》不但是中世印度思想最為重要的源頭,裡面所揭櫫的自在天思想甚至對大乘佛教有著重要的影響。觀自在思想的出現,即為佛教與印度教在這方面互動之最好例證。這一部分即是透過自在天思想之出線探討其對印度教之深遠影響以及中世印度教與佛教之交涉。另外一個跟宗教思想關係密切,但比較特殊,在書中單獨加以處理
    的是有關神意裁判(divya)的身體觀。神意裁判是對於身體加以試煉之審判方式,其涉及的是一個宗教思想主導下的社會之司法對於身體的看法。值得一提的是,神意裁判所涉及的司法正義卻是印歐社會很早就存在的看法,認為身體能承載真理,其跟水火等相關之自然界力量間有著遙相呼應的關係。透過神聖自然秩序之考驗,即可讓真相大白。此一司法身體觀,說明了身體除了可以修鍊之外,更是懲戒之源頭。然而,這種懲戒並非是一般的嚴刑拷打,而是對身心之嚴峻考驗,隨時有出現不測之可能。神意裁判之存在意義,頗值得探討。
    This research project has been well-progressed and the draft of a book entitled “Ideals of the Body in Indian
    Socio-religious History” is completed. This work is divided into three parts. The first part deals with early
    stage on metaphors of the body. Starting from the Rig Veda, the body as a powerful metaphor of social organism is solemnly proclaimed. The birth of four social classes (var?a), as articulated vigorously in RV 10:90, bequeaths a lasting legacy to Indian. In early Upani?ads, the body has transformed itself into ?tman and its cosmic bandhu-brahman also gains a new dimension. The religious-philosophical contemplation on the connection between the body and the universe has become intellectual climate of this period. During the Vedic period, consistent employment of the body as a meaningful metaphor shows the triumph of the
    Brahmanical orthodoxy and orthopraxy. The ideal of the body receives a serious setback with the advent of ?ramanism. Early Buddhism and Jainism, with its ultimate concern for the liberation from worldly existence,
    consider the body as a symbol of impurity and impermanence. To be sure, the body, with its deeply-rooted link with desire and attachment, has to be disciplined. Thus, early Buddhism lays emphasis on the cultivation of the intentness of mind (sati),especially constant guard on the body, the sensations the mind and phenomena (catt?ro satipa??h?n? bh?vit?). Thus, wakefulness of mind on the body to realize the impermanence of all things (k?yagat? sati) is a practice that a mendicant has to dedicate. Detachment from
    the world, especially things associated with the body, is the convinced way to mok?a. The second part deals with Bhakti and Tantra. The ?vet??vatara Upani?ad and the Bhagavad G?t? will be our starting points. The rise of Bhakti and Tantra movement in medieval India gives the role of the body in a new perspective. In both traditions, the body is to be united with the ??vara through taking refuge with him or practicing rituals and visualization. For a follower of Bhakti Yoga, bestowing one’s unshakable devotion to the deity is the definitive way of salvation. Taking refuge with the deity requires unstinting dedication for a devotee, in mind and heart. In Tantrism, as ??vara is the incarnation of ?akti, a Tantric practitioner’s body is also divinized to become a vessel of the divinity.
    Relation: MOST 104-2410-H-004-203
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[宗教研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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